Medical Home Remedies:
As Recommended by 19th and 20th century Doctors!
Courtesy of www.DoctorTreatments.com



MEDICAL INTRO
BOOKS ON OLD MEDICAL TREATMENTS AND REMEDIES

THE PRACTICAL
HOME PHYSICIAN AND ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEDICINE
The biggy of the late 1800's. Clearly shows the massive inroads in medical science and the treatment of disease.

ALCOHOL AND THE HUMAN BODY In fact alcohol was known to be a poison, and considered quite dangerous. Something modern medicine now agrees with. This was known circa 1907. A very impressive scientific book on the subject.

DISEASES OF THE SKIN is a massive book on skin diseases from 1914. Don't be feint hearted though, it's loaded with photos that I found disturbing.

Part of  SAVORY'S COMPENDIUM OF DOMESTIC MEDICINE:

 19th CENTURY HEALTH MEDICINES AND DRUGS

 

and please share with your online friends.

The drugs and medicines of the late 19th century - when self treatment was often the only option to no treatment.

The following extract from the late 19th century - late 1800's - comes from Savory's Compendium of Domestic Medicine: and Companion to the Medicine Chest. The drugs and medicines were used to keep people in as good a state of health as could be done, during the 19th century. Many of these drugs and medines can still be purchased today, with their use often unchanged. This list of 19th Century drugs and medicines is quite comprehensive in both dosage and use. Hence the large size of this webpage.

DRUGS, CHEMICALS,

&c. &c.

ACID, ACETIC, GLACIAL.

French. Acide Acètique Concentre.

German. Concentrirte Essigsaure.
This acid, applied by means of blotting-paper, or fine cambric,
speedily produces vesication, and is sometimes used as a substi-
tute for a blister in cases of sudden inflammation, such as croup,
&c, which do not admit of delay. It is also applied with a
camel's-hair pencil to destroy corns and warts, especially when of
a syphilitic character ; but great care should be taken in its
application, that it does not extend beyond the excrescence. It
is likewise, from its pungent odour; a useful stimulant held to the
nostrils in faintness and in severe headache, and it has been sup-
posed to have some influence in preventing infection.

ACID, CARBOLIC.

French. Acide Phènique.
This substance is obtained from the distillation of coal tar, and
is used both in a liquid and in a crystalline or solid form. Its
disinfecting or antiseptic qualities are very remarkable. It has
also been employed with great advantage as a caustic in the
treatment of haemorrhoids, fistula, &c. In the proportion of one
ounce to 40 ounces of water it has been successfully used for
disinfecting foetid ulcers and certain purulent sores, or when
diluted to one pint in 200 of water, it forms a gargle for sore-
throats attended with foetid breath.

CARBOLIC ACID WITH GLYCERINE.

Dose.—From five to ten minims in water.


2                                                   ACID, CITRIC.

ACID, CITKIC.

Crystallized Lemon Juice.
French.
Acide Citrique.
German. Citronen-Saure.
Italian. Acido Citrico.

The solution of this acid in water, in the proportion of nine
drachms and a-half of the crystals, half a drachm of tincture of
lemon-peel, and one pint of water, will answer nearly all the
purposes of recent lemon-juice, and is even preferable for forming
the common effervescing draught with carbonate of potash. One
scruple of this acid triturated with a little sugar and a few drops
of the tincture of lemon-peel, and dissolved in a pint of water,
forms a grateful refrigerant beverage, resembling lemonade, and
is useful in scurvy, liver complaints, and dropsy, in febrile and
inflammatory complaints, allaying heat and irritation, and re-
ducing the pulse.

Fifteen grains of the lemon acid in solution will saturate one
scruple of carbonate of potash, and form an agreeable effervescing
draught.

SALINE MIXTURE.

Take of
Citric acid,

Bicarbonate of potash, of each one drachm.
Syrup of orange-peel,
Spirit of nutmeg, of each one ounce.
Distilled water, twelve ounces.

Mix.

Two tablespoonfuls of this mixture may be taken every four
hours in fevers and inflammatory sore throats.

Lemon-juice forms a usefid and agreeable refrigerant, allaying
thirst and diminishing preternatural heat in febrile and inflam-
matory diseases. The employment of lemon-juice as a remedy in
the treatment of acute rheumatism and gout was proposed by


ACID, GALLIC.                                                    3

Dr. Q. 0. Eees, of London; and many of the Faculty who have
tried it on his authority corroborate his statement of its efficacy.
In acute rheumatism, Dr. Rees began with half an ounce to one
ounce three times a-day; but he soon found that one ounce to two
ounces was a more efficient dose. It may be taken by itself, or
mixed with sugar and water and ten or fifteen drops of sal-volatile.
Lemon-juice is supplied both to the army and navy for the pre-
vention and cure of scurvy. One or two ounces twice or thrice
a week is a preventive dose, and four or six ounces daily will cure
the disease when it has appeared. In order to preserve lemon-
juice, it should be mixed with about a tenth of its weight of
brandy. Dr. H. Bence Jones has made some interesting observa-
tions on citric acid and lemon-juice, and concludes that their
action is identical. Experimental trials showed that the acidity
of the urine is increased : he therefore cautions the practitioner
against the use of the juice for three or four weeks continuously
in chronic gout or rheumatism, for fear that red gravel, or uric
acid calculus, should be produced.

ACID, GALLIC.

French. Acide Gallique.
German. Gallussaure.

Gallic acid is a powerful astringent, its effects being particu-
larly manifested on the urinary organs ; it is therefore a remedy
of great value in all forms of haemorrhage from the kidneys or
bladder, or from the stomach, bowels, or uterus, provided no
inflammatory symptoms are present; also in checking profuse
sweating and diarrhoea in consumption. It is sometimes used as a
gargle in inflammatory sore-throats, externally, in the form of
a lotion, or an injection to suppress bleeding from the nose,
gums, &c, and to lessen the discharge from the mucous membrane
in leucorrlioea, gleet, &c.

Dose.—Three grains to ten, two or three times a day in the
form of pill, or suspended in warm water by means of mucilage
of gum arabic. Children in rickets may take half a grain or one

b 2


4

ACID, MURIATIC.

grain. Dr. B. Jones prescribes as much as twenty grains in
chylous urine.

Take of
Gallic acid, two scruples.
Hydrochlorate of morphia, one grain.
Mucilage of gum arabic, sufficient quantity to form sixteen pills.

Dose.—One at bedtime.

Given with advantage in pyrosis or water brash and night
sweats of consumption.

Take of
Gallic acid, one scruple.
Mucilage of gum arabic, two drachms.
Distilled water, three ounces and a-half.
Syrup of red poppies, two drachms.

Mix,—Take two tablespoonfuls every second or third hour.

Recommended by Dr. Neligan in hemorrhage from the kidneys
or bladder.

ACID, MURIATIC.
HYDROCHLORIC ACID.

French, Acide Hydrochlorique.

German. Salzsaure.

Italian. Acido Idrochlorico.
This acid has been given as a refrigerant and antiseptic in scar-
latina and fevers of the typhoid type, in doses of ten or fifteen
minims in a sufficient quantity of barley-water or gruel, every
three or four hours. It is also used, largely diluted, as a gargle
for ulcerated throats in scarlet fever, in the following forms :—

MURIATIC ACID GARGLE.

Take of
Infusion of roses, four ounces.
Muriatic acid, from twenty to forty minims.
Honey of roses, one ounce.

Mix, and gargle the throat frequently.


ACID, MURIATIC.

5

MURIATIC ACID LINCTUS.

Take of
Honey of roses, ten drachms.
Syrup of red poppies, two drachms.
Muriatic acid, ten minims.
Mix, and apply a little of it to the mouth and throat, with a
camel's-hair pencil.

MURIATIC ACID MIXTURE.

Take of
Muriatic acid, half a drachm.
Syrup of mulberries, one ounce.
Distilled water, seven ounces.

Mix.—A tablespoonful every four or five hours.

MURIATIC ACID OINTMENT, FOR SCALD HEAD AND RINGWORM.

Take of
Green elder ointment, ten drachms.
Muriatic acid, half an ounce.
Mix well together, and apply a piece the size of a walnut night
and morning.

As a tonic, muriatic acid may be given in doses of from ten to
twenty minims in two ounces of water, or any vegetable infusion.
This acid is also employed for the destruction of warts, which
may be touched with it night and morning ; taking the same pre-
caution in its use as is recommended under the head of acetic
acid. According to Dr. Paris, this acid, when mixed with a strong
infusion of quassia, is a most effectual remedy in preventing the
generation of worms. In cases of poisoning with this acid, the
antidotes are chalk or magnesia, combined with demulcent and
emollient drinks.

A lotion composed of five or six minims of this acid and an
ounce of water sweetened with syrup of red poppy is very useful
in the thrush of children. If a rag is soaked in this lotion, and
put into the infant's mouth, it sucks it eagerly, and the aphthae
are effectually touched with it. Great care must be taken not to
make it too strong, so as to cause much pain.


6

ACID, NITRIC, DILUTED.

ACID, NITBIC.

French. Acide Nitrique.

German. Salpeter-saure.

Italian. Acido Mtrieo.
This acid is seldom employed except for pharmaceutical pur-
poses ; in its concentrated state, it is a potent caustic, and would
probably be a useful application in the bite of a mad dog in situa-
tions where the knife cannot be employed. Nitric acid vapour
is also used in funiiga' ions for the destruction of contagious and
infectious effluvia. It destroys warts in the same manner as the
acetic and muriatic acids. When used for this purpose, it should
be applied by means of a pointed glass rod. In India, during the
epidemic cholera, nitric acid was employed for the purpose of
vesication; and being found exceedingly successful in that disease
by the quickness of its action (the effect being attained in two
minutes), it was subsequently extended to a variety of other
diseases, where prompt counter-irritation was required. The fol-
lowing is the manner in which it was used :—Two parts of the
acid were mixed with one of water, and spread over the part with
a feather; or the surface was rubbed with the mixture till sharp
pain was induced, and the acid was then neutralized by a solution
of salt of tartar.

In cases of poisoning with this acid, the antidotes are the same
as for muriatic acid.

ACID, NITHIC, DILUTED.

French. Acide Mtrique dilue.
German. Verdunnte Salpeter-saure.
•Is tonic, antiseptic, and anti-syphilitic. The dose of diluted
nitric acid is from teu to thirty minims, taken in three ounces of
water, three or four times a day. If this acid be furthur diluted,
so as to equal the acidity of lemonade, and sweetened with sugar
or capillaire, it will be found an excellent and agreeable beverage ;
it has been given repeatedly with advantage in typhoid, malig-


ACID, NITRIC, DILUTED.                                           7

nant, and petechial fevers. A lotion made with two drachms of
this acid to a pint of water, has been found serviceable when
applied to ulcers of an unhealthy and foetid character. Diluted
nitric acid has been given with benefit in dyspepsia, particularly
when arising from sympathy with a diseased liver, or some othei
of the abdominal viscera; but to attain its full effect, it should be
long and steadily continued.

In obstinate heartburn, the following draught often gives far
more permanent relief than alkalies :—

Take of
Diluted nitric acid,

Diluted muriatic acid, of each five minims.
Infusion of quassia, ten drachms,
Tincture of quassia,
Syrup of orange-peel, of each one drachm.

Mix, and make a draught.

NITRIC ACID MIXTURE.

Take of
Diluted nitric acid, one drachm.
Distilled water, thirteen ounces.
Syrup of capillaire, one ounce.

Mix.—Two tablespoonfuls of this mixture may be taken for a
dose in typhoid, malignant, and petechial fevers.

Nitric acid is sometimes prescribed as an adjunct to bark in
typhoid fevers, in the following form :

NITRIC ACID DRAUGHT.

Take of
Decoction of bark, twelve drachms.
Tincture of bark, one drachm.
Nitric acid, eight minims.
Syrup of orange-peel, one drachm.

Mix.


8

ACID, PHOSPHORIC, ~DILITTED.

NITRIC ACID DRAUGHT.

Take of
Tincture of squills, ten minims.
Diluted nitric acid, six minims.
Extract of henbane, three grains.
Distilled water, one ounce and a-half.
This draught is very efficacious during a fit of asthma.

ACID, NTTRO-MURIATIC, DILUTED.

French. Acide Nitro-muriatique.
German. Saltpeter-salzsàure.

This acid, when properly diluted, is used as a tonic and
stomachic in dyspepsia, heartburn, &c. It is considered, by Sir
Konald Martin, to have a considerable influence in obstructions of
the liver. Dose, from ten to twenty mimims, well diluted with
water, two or three times a day, or in the following manner :—

Take of
Diluted nitro-muriatic acid, ten minims.
Fluid extract of dandelion, half a drachm.
Tincture of gentian, one drachm.
Tincture of cherettah, one drachm.

Mix, and make a draught, to be taken two or three times a day.

Externally, it is used in the form of a foot-bath, in affections of
the liver, and in deficient secretion of the bile.—See the article on
Medicated Baths,

ACID, PHOSPHORIC, DILUTED,

This acid is employed as a refrigerant and tonic ; it is con-
sidered by some physicians more efficacious than the mineral
acids in quenching thirst in diabetes, agrees better with the
stomach, and is supposed to exert an influence on the growth of
osseous tumours, and earthy deposits in the urine. It is usually
prescribed with aromatic or bitter tinctures. Dose for an adult is


ACID, PYROLIGNEOUS.                                            9

from ten to thirty minims, largely diluted with water; for a child
twelve months old, three minims. The following mixture is pre-
scribed by Dr. Neligan in phosphatic deposits from urine :—

Take of
Diluted phosphoric acid, half an ounce.
Compound tincture of cardamoms, half an ounce.
Infusion of Calumbo, seven ounces.

Mix.—Two tablespoonfuls three times a day.

ACID, PBTXSSIC.

MEDICINAL OR DILUTED HYDROCYANIC ACID.

French. Acide Prussique medicinal.
German. Cyanwasserstoffsàure, Blausaure.

As this medicine is a powerful poison, it requires to be care-
fully watched in its operation, and should never be had recourse
to unless under the direction of a medical attendant. It has been
administered with success in nervous and convulsive coughs, in
asthma, hooping-cough, spasmodic palpitations, consumption,
vomiting, and painful affections of the stomach. Dose, two to
eight minims. Externally, as a wash, to allay pain and irritation
in skin diseases.

Preparations containing prussic acid should be put into dark-
coloured bottles, be well corked, and kept in a cool, dark place.
When administered, they should be well shaken. English pre-
scriptions prepared on the Continent containing prussic acid
should be made with the acid of the British Pharmacopoeia,
as the strength of the various preparations differs materially.

ACID, PYBOLIGNEOUS.

French. Acide Pyroligneux.
German. Rectificirter Holls-essig.
Italian. Acido Pyrolignico.
This acid is applicable to all the purposes for which vinegar is
employed, and, by dilution with water, will form vinegar of any
strength. One part of this acid and eleven parts of pure water

b 3

r


10

ACID, SULPHURIC.

form the distilled vinegar used by chemists, and is suitable
to all medical purposes. One part of this acid and six parts
and a-half of water will form the strongest pickling vinegar
(called No. 24); and is applicable to pickling and preserving
meat, fish, game* and every other purpose for which strong
vinegar is required. One part of the acid and nine parts
of water are equal to the best pickling vinegar (called No.
22); and is proper for pickling most kinds of vegetables, for
salads, table, or culinary and family uses. When undiluted, this
acid is suited for exportation and fumigation, and is a powerful
antiseptic application. In diluting the acid with water, it is only
necessary to stir them well together. For medicinal purposes,
distilled water is preferable; for other nses, cold soft water is the
best. This acid is not injured by weather or climate : it will pre-
serve animal matter, cooked or raw, for weeks in the hottest
weather; and by applying it to meat, fish, or game, it will com-
pletely remove must, taint, and incipient putrefaction. It is used
in the same manner as brine for immersing raw or cooked meats,
without the necessity of adding salt or spice. It is also fre-
quently employed in place of common vinegar for inhaling, in
recent sore-throats, hoarseness, &c. ; and the following is the
usual way of applying it:—One part of the acid is put into a tea-
pot, or inhaler, and six parts of boiling water are poured upon it ;
the spout of the vessel should then be introduced into the mouth
and the acid vapour inhaled.

ACID, STJLPHUKIC.

OIL OF VITRIOL.

French. Acide Sulfurique.

German. Schwefelsaure.

Italian. Acido Solforico.
This acid is prescribed chiefly in the form of elixir of vitriol,
which is the acid, in a state of dilution, with an aromatic added.
{See Elixir Vitriol.) Mixed with nitre, it is used for fumigating
chambers. — {See Nitrous Fumigations.) Externally, it has been
used with advantage for the itch, in the proportion of half a
drachm to an ounce of lard. This ointment is also useful in cases
of ringworm.


ACID, TANNIC, OR TANNIN.

II

ACID, SULPHURIC, DILUTED.

French. Acide Sulfurique dilu§.
German. Verdunnte Schwefelsàure.
Italian. Acido Solforico diluto.
This acid may be given in doses of from ten to thirty minims,
and is a very useful tonic; it is also generally considered as
astringent, and has been administered with success in many
cases of epidemic diarrhoea and cholera. In putrid sore-throat
and quinsy it is sometimes applied in the following form, as a
gargle :—

Take of
Infusion of roses, five ounces and a half.
Syrup of roses, half an ounce.
Diluted sulphuric acid, twenty-five minims.
Mix, and make a gargle, to be used frequently.

TONIC DRAUGHT.

Take of
Diluted sulphuric acid, ten minims.
Infusion of roses, eleven drachms.
Syrup of ginger, one drachm.
This draught may be taken two or three times during the day.

TONIC MIXTURE.

Take of
Diluted sulphuric acid, two drachms.
Compound tincture of bark, two ounces.
Mix.
One or two teaspoonfnls of this mixture may be taken twice a
day, in a little water, to restrain colliquative sweats.

To prevent the acid from injuring the enamel of the teeth, the
medicine should be sucked through an acid-tube, or quill, and the
mouth carefully washed after each dose.

ACID, TANNIC, OR TANNIN.
This acid is a powerful astringent, and has been given with
great advantage in menorrhagia, hematuria, hemoptysis, in-


12

ACIDULATED KALI.

creased mucous and other discharges, hectic sweating, diarrhoea,
and dysenteric affections. A suppository composed of one
drachm of tannic acid placed in the vagina, and plugged in with
a soft sponge, effectually stops hemorrhage. Dr. Porta, an
Italian physician, employed tannic acid with great success in
the treatment of uterine haemorrhage and bleeding from the
rectum. In diarrhoea, and dysenteric affections, it has been
found more beneficial than ordinary astringents, being less liable
to irritate the stomach and bowels. Dr. P. Garnier has found
tannic acid very beneficial in the dropsy of Bright's disease ; he
gave from half a drachm to a drachm in divided doses, through
the day, and found its curative influence beginning on the second
day by a return of the urine to a healthy state. Tannic acid is
more useful as a gargle in relaxed uvula, or as an injection, than
gallic acid. Dose, from two to ten grains, in pills. For injec-
tions, four to ten grains to an ounce of water. Tannin lozenges
are a most convenient form for taking this medicine: each lozenge
contains half a grain.

ACID, TAKTAEIC.

French: Acide Tartarique.

German. Weinsteinsaure.

Italian. Acido Tartarico.
Refrigerant, antiseptic, diuretic, and slightly aperient. Two
drachms of tartaric acid, one ounce of sugar, and about eight
drops of the essence of lemon, dissolved in three pints of spring
water, form a pleasant fever drink. Thirty grains of tartaric
acid, and the same quantity of bicarbonate of soda, dissolved in
half a pint of spring water, form an excellent substitute for soda-
water, slightly aperient.

ACIDULATED KALI.

(For making Saline Draughts.)

The beneficial effects of this pleasant and efficacious remedy in

fevers, its singular use in stopping vomiting, from whatever cause

it may proceed, the immediate relief which it affords in bilious


ACONITE ROOT.

13

affections, particularly in cases of heartburn, have been so long
known to the public, that they have considered it as one of the
most useful domestic medicines.

Unfortunately, lemons are not to be purchased at all seasons;
and in no situation are they at all times equally good. To remedy
this inconvenience, the juice of the lemon is reduced to a concrete
form, and combined with an alkali. In this state the peculiar
properties of this valuable remedy will remain unimpaired by
time and uninfluenced by climate.

To four large spoonfuls of water add one large teaspoonful
of the concrete acidulated kali, stir it briskly, and let it be taken
during the state of effervescence. It may be repeated every fourth
or sixth hour.

Persons in the habit of drinking soda-water as a pleasant beve-
rage, will find one teaspoonful of this concrete acidulated kali,
mixed with half a pint of spring water, much more palatable
if drunk during the state of effervescence.

ACONITE ROOT.

MONKSHOOD.

The medicinal properties of this root are the same as the leaves,
the root being considered the most active. It is a powerful
poison, and many fatal cases have occurred in consequence of
the root, when scraped, being mistaken for horseradish ; but the
want of pungency so well known to the horseradish, the imme-
diate tingling of the tongue, and the appearance of a pinkish
colour of the root when scraped, wrill soon discover the mistake.
In case of suspected poisoning by aconite, some animal charcoal
mixed with water should be given immediately, followed up,
after a short time, with a zinc emetic; after the operation of
the emetic, ammonia, sal-volatile and brandy should be adminis-
tered, and the patient kept in continual motion.

According to Dr. Flemming, aconite is a powerful sedative to
the nervous system, reducing also the force of the circulation.
It is employed in rheumatism, neuralgia, gout, hooping cough,
and scrofula. It may be administered in powder, extract or
tincture. The dose of the powdered leaves is one grain, of the


14

ALOES, SOCOTRINE.

extract one to two grains, of the tincture five to ten minims. The
Aconite Liniment mixed with chloroform liniment, in the pro-
portion of seven ounces of the former and one part of the latter,
is an excellent external application for neuralgia or lumbago. It
should be sprinkled thinly on spongio piline.

ACONITIWE,

Chiefly used in the form of an ointment for the relief of
neuralgic pains, rheumatism, &c.; it is never given internally.

ACT^A RACEMOSA.

BLACK SNAKE ROOT, OR COHOSH.

A tincture of this root has been extensively used in America
in affording great relief in neuralgia, dropsy, and, according to
Br. F. N. Johnson, in acute rheumatism, with great success.
Dr. Hildreth says he has prescribed it combined with iodine in
the early stages of consumption with equal success. Dose, thirty
to sixty minims.

ALOES, SOCOTKINE.

French. Aloes Socotrin.

German. Sucotrinische Aloe.
Is a warm and somewhat stimulating cathartic, acting slowly,
and exerting its effects chiefly upon the large intestines. In small
doses of two or three grains, it usually acts as a gentle laxative;
discharging, at a single operation, the fsecal contents of the lower
bowels with little uneasiness. In females, it acts also upon the
uterine system; not unfrequently producing pain in the loins, and
either increasing the menstrual discharge, if present, or restoring
it if suppressed. Aloes has also the property of exciting the
stomach, thereby increasing the appetite and invigorating diges-
tion, when these are impaired in consequence of deficient tone of
that organ. It is frequently and most usefully prescribed to re-
lieve habitual constipation, dependent upon torpor or deficient


Aloes, socotfvIne.

15

irritability of the bowels. With this view it is given in small
doses of from one to five grains, repeated daily, or as often as cir-
cumstances may call for its use. It should, as a general rule, be
taken at bedtime, as the slowness of its operation will usually
preclude any disturbance of rest during the night. In this way,
it often proves highly advantageous in chronic rheumatism, green-
sickness, and various nervous affections, relieving the inconve-
niences arising from the constipated state of the bowels, without
producing either local or general debility. When taken in the
quantity of one or two grains a short time before dinner, it pro-
motes the appetite, renders the food less oppressive to the stomach,
and obviates the flatulence so frequently a troublesome attendant
upon dyspeptic complaints : in fact, aloes is the basis of almost all
those combinations which have enjoyed so much popular credit
under the names of Antibilious and Dinner Pills.

The emmenagogue Virtues of aloes have been long and generally
known ; it forms, therefore, an ingredient in most of the com-
pounds employed in cases of obstructed menses. The cases to
which it is best adapted are those in which deficient energy of the
uterus is accompanied with constipation of the bowels, and more
or less general debility. In these it may be combined with myrrh
and the carbonate of iron. Advantage may sometimes result from
full purgative doses of aloes about the period at which the men-
strual efforts should occur ; but it ought not to be given where the
suppression depends upon inflammatory excitement of the uterus,
or a plethoric condition of the system, nor in such cases as are
complicated with hemorrhoidal discharges. Wherever tendency
to hemorrhoidal disorder exists, aloetic preparations will in-
variably prove injurious. Aloes is also contra-indicated in preg-
nancy during its advanced stages, or at any stage when there is a
likelihood of miscarriage.

Aloes is not often given to children, from the bitterness of its
taste, and its liability to gripe ; but there is no purgative that, if
judiciously employed, is more useful. The taste of aloes is well
hidden by combination with liquorice-root, and perhaps there are
few medicines to the taste of which children sooner become
reconciled. Of its various preparations, the compound decoction
and the wiue of aloes are those best fitted for administration to
children.


1()

ALOES, SOCOTR1NE.

THE APERIENT AND TONIC ALOETIC PILLS.

Take of
Socotrine aloes, twenty-four grains.
Extract of bark, twelve grains.
Powdered gentian, four grains.

Mix, and divide into eight pills.
Two of these pills may be taken an hour before dinner.

THE ALOETIC PILLS.

Take of
Extract of aloes, twenty grains.
Powdered myrrh, thirty grains.
Extract of gentian, twenty grains.
Sulphate of iron, ten grains.

Mix, and divide into eighty pills.

Two or four of these pills may be taken in leucophlegmatic and
strumous habits, when the alvine excretion is irregular.

THE COMPOUND CATHARTIC PILLS WITH ALOES.

Take of
Socotrine aloes, one scruple.
Scammony in powder, twelve grains.
Extract of rhubarb, two scruples.
Powdered capsicum, six grains.
Oil of cloves, five minims.

Mix, and divide into sixteen pills.

Two of these pills may be taken occasionally at bedtime.

DR. BAILLIE'S PILLS FOR INDIGESTION AND COSTIVENESS.

Take of
Extract of aloes, twenty grains.
Powdered ginger, half a drachm.
Powdered ipecacuanha, eight grains.
Syrup, sufficient quantity.

Mix, and divide into sixteen pills.

Dose.—One, an hour before dinner,


ALUM, COMMON.

ALUM, COMMON".

French. Alun.
German. Alaun.
Italian. Allume.

Alum is a powerful astringent. It is used both as an internal
and external remedy for restraining violent haemorrhages, in which
cases it is given in doses of five grains to one scruple, repeated
every hour or two till the bleeding abates. It is sometimes admi-
nistered, dissolved in the serum of milk, in the form of whey,
which is a useful beverage in fevers, and is prepared by boiling
two drachms of powdered alum in a pint of milk, and then strain-
ing. The dose is a wine-glassful. A small piece of alum,
briskly agitated with the white of an egg, forms a coagulum,
which, applied between two pieces of gauze, or thin rag, has been
found serviceable in some species of ophthalmia. Alum has the
property of clearing turbid water, wine, and spirituous liquors,
for which purpose it is extensively employed. Alum is also ad-
ministered in hooping-cough and lead colic. Locally, its saturated
solution is used as a styptic, and a weaker solution as a lotion to
chilblains, collyrium in chronic ophthalmia, and as a gargle in
relaxed sore-throat.

ALUM ELECTUARY.

Take of
Powdered alum, half an ounce.
Powdered Peruvian bark, one ounce and a-half.
Syrup of lemons, a sufficient quantity to form an electuary.

Dose.—A piece the size of a walnut three times a day, in
haemorrhages, immoderate flow of urine, and fluor albus.

ALUM COLLYKIUM.

Take of
Powdered alum, five grains.
Rose-water, one ounce.

Mix.


18

ALUM, COMMON.

ALUM GARGLE, FOR RELAXED UVULA AND TONSILS.

Take of
Bruised oak bark, one ounce.
Water, one pint and a-half.
Boil down to one pint, strain and add—
Powdered alum, half a drachm.
Spirit of wine, or brandy, two ounces.

Mix.

ALUM PILLS, FOR SPITTING OF BLOOD.

Take of
Powdered alum, five grains.
Powdered nutmeg, four grains.
Extract of gentian, two grains.

Mix, and divide into two pills.

ALUM MIXTURES FOR HOOPING COUGH.

Take of
Alum, half a drachm.
Distilled water, three ounces and a-half.
Syrup of red poppies, half a drachm.

Mix. —A teaspoonful twice a day in hooping cough.

Take of
Alum, twenty-five grains.
Extract of hemlock, ten grains.
Syrup of red poppies, two drachms.
Dillseed water, three ounces.

Mix.—A dessert-spoonful every six hours in the second stage of
hooping-cough.

FOR FLOODING.

Take of
Powdered alum, twelve grains.
Powdered catechu, five grains.
Powdered cinnamon, four grains.
Confection of roses, sufficient to make a bolus, which may be

taken three times a day in flooding from relaxation.


AMMONIA, CARBONATE OF.                                      19

ALUM, BURNT.
French. Alun calcine.
German. Gebrannter Alaun.
Italian. Allume calcinato.
Astringent. Used in gargles and lotions. It is also employed
as an escharotic to destroy fungus in ulcers.

AMMONIA, BENZOATE.
Benzoate of ammonia acts as a stimulant and diuretic, and is
prescribed in gout when chalk stones are deposited near the
joints, also in chronic inflammation of the bladder, especially
where there is a tendency to phosphatic deposits. Dose, from ten
to twenty grains, in any fluid vehicle.

AMMONIA, CARBONATE OF.

VOLATILE ALKALI.

French. Sesquicarbonate d'Ammoniaque.

German. Kohlensaures Ammoniak.

Italian. Sottocarbonato d' Ammoniaco.
Is stimulant, anti-spasmodic, diaphoretic, antacid. The dose is
from five to ten grains dissolved in camphor-julep, or water. It
is useful in fainting and hysterics, in the form of smelling-salts ;
combined with opium, it affords a powerful resource in protracted
diarrhoea, attended with debility of the alimentary canal. A
plaster, composed of one part of powdered carbonate of ammonia
mixed with three of extract of belladonna, is very effectual in
allaying rheumatic and spasmodic pains. Fifteen grains of car-
bonate of ammonia dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of water, and
adding to the solution half an ounce of fresh lemon-juice, form a
useful saline draught for allaying nausea*

From five to ten grains of this alkaline salt, joined with ten or
fifteen grains of Jamaica ginger, are sometimes given in a little
peppermint-water in gouty acidities of the stomach. Ammonia
has also been supposed to remedy the nervous disorders produced
by alcoholic drinks and the use of tobacco. Volatile alkali is
much used by confectioners to give lightness to their pastry, by
its free evolution of carbonic acid gas when subjected to heat.


20

AMMONIA, CARBONATE OF.

ANTACID DRAUGHT.

Take of
Carbonate of ammonia, ten grains.
Peppermint-water, twelve drachms.
Syrup of roses, one drachm.

Mix.

This draught will frequently check diarrhoea arising from
acidity.

ANTACID PILLS, FOR HEARTBURN AND GOUTY HABITS.

Take of
Carbonate of ammonia,
Extract of gentian, of each half a drachm.
Mix, and divide into twelve pills, two of which may be taken
twice or thrice a day.

DIAPHORETIC DRAUGHT.

Take of
Sesquicarbonate of ammonia, one scruple.
Fresh lemon-juice, six drachms; or, citric acid, twenty-four

grains.
Distilled water, seven drachms.
Syrup of Tolu,
Spirit of nutmeg, of each half a drachm.

Mix.

ANTACID PILLS, FOR DYSPEPSIA.

Take of
Carbonate of ammonia, five grains.
Extract of rhubarb, eight grains.

Mix, and divide into three pills.

ANTI-SPASMODIC MIXTURES.

Take of

Sesquicarbonate of ammonia, four grains.
Musk, six grains.
White sugar, three drachms.
Dillseed water, two ounces and a-half.
Mix.
A teaspoonful of this mixture may be given every hour in the
spasms of infants.


AMMONIUM, CHLOEIDE OF.

21

Take of
Carbonate of ammonia, five grains.
Essence of sumbul, ten minims.
Hoffman's ether, half a drachm.
Camphor julep, ten drachms.
Peppermint water, two drachms.

Mix.

This draught may be taken during a severe fit of spasms.

AMMONIA, MURIATE OF,

See Sal Ammoniac,

AMMONIA, PHOSPHATE OF.

This salt has been employed by several practitioners, both in
this country and on the Continent, with apparently useful results
in chronic gout, and certain urinary diseases. The dose is from
five to twenty grains, three or four times a day, dissolved in a
tablespoonful of water.

AMMONIUM, BROMIDE OF.

Similar in its medicinal effects to bromide of potassium. Dose,
two to twenty grains. Lozenges containing two grains of bromide
of ammonium will be found very convenient for travellers, espe-
cially persons who are subject to epileptic fits, as this salt has
been found useful when the bromide of potassium has failed.
One or two may be given during the day.

AMMONIUM, CHLORIDE OF.

Is a stimulant, diaphoretic, discutient, and irritant. Ten to
fifteen grains dissolved in a wine-glassful of water frequently
checks the distressing fits of coughing in chronic bronchitis. It
has also been found useful in scrofulous and syphilitic enlarge-
ments of the glands. Externally it has been prescribed as a
resolvent in indolent tumours.


22                                        ANTIMONIAL POWDER.

AISTG-TTSTTTRA OR CUSPARIA BARK.

French. Ecorce d'Angusture.
German. Angusturarinde.
Italian. August ura.

Is a valuable tonic, especially in cases of dyspepsia, with diar-
rhoea and loss of appetite. It is not much used in England, but
in South America it has been prescribed with success in the
treatment of low fevers, especially in marshy districts. It may
be given in powder, in doses of ten grains, twice or thrice a day ;
or in infusion or decoction. In cases of ilatulency of the stomach,
attended by nausea, five grains, with the same weight of rhubarb,
taken an hour before dinner, will often effectually restore the
appetite and digestion.

Take of
Infusion of cusparia, six ounces.
Tincture of cusparia, half an ounce.
Powdered cusparia, one scruple.
Compound spirit of lavender, half a drachm.
Jeremie's solution of opium, five minims.

Mix.

Three or four tablespoonfuls of this mixture may be given in
diarrhoea, with irritability and exhaustion.

\
ANTIMOMTAL POWDER.

French. Poudre Antimoniale.

A medicine forming the basis of the celebrated Dr. James's powder.
This is an excellent diaphoretic and sudorific remedy in fevers,
procuring with ease and safety the most salutary evacuations, and
not unfrequently inducing a speedy and favourable termination
of the complaint; but several circumstances are necessary to be
attended to in regard to the administration of this medicine.

1.—Whenever it is indicated, the patient should be confined to
bed, but not overloaded with bed-clothes. If the pulse be full,


ANTIMONIAL POWDER.

23

hard, and quick, and the skin hot, blood-letting, if not contra-
indicated by some peculiar circumstance, should precede the use
of this powder; and the bowels, also, should be freely opened.

2.—The free use of diluents is necessary during the administra-
tion of antimcnial powder, unless the stomach be in a highly
irritable state.

3.—During the administration of antimonial or diaphoretic
medicines, it is essential to use bad conductors of heat as cover-
ings ; both the body-clothes and bed-clothes of the patient should
be woollen, which, being of a light spongy texture, not only pre-
serves an uniform temperature, but also absorbs the moisture as
the perspiration flows. Attention to this circumstance is most
necessary, if it be intended to keep up the sweating for ten or
twelve hours.

4.—The morning, directly after sleep, is the best period of the
day for administering diaphoretics, as the system is then easily
excited, and the surface is more relaxed.

Antimonial powder is given in doses of from three to six grains,
every five or six hours, in the form of pill, combined with opium
or camphor, in fever or inflammatory disorders ; or repeated twice
or thrice a day, with demulcent drinks; or mixed in jelly or
honey; and a saline sudorific draught, with four or five drops
of laudanum, may at the same time be taken with advantage. In
eruptive diseases, such as measles, small-pox, scarlet-fever, &c,
it is a remedy of the highest value; but it should always be
recollected that, in all cases for which it is required, the bowels
must first be attended to; for, until they are evacuated, little
advantage can be expected to accrue from the action of the skin
only.

DIAPHORETIC POWDER.

Take of
Antimonial powder, four grains.
Cream of tartar, six grains.

Mix.

DIAPHORETIC PILL.

Take of
Antimonial powder, two grains.
Extract of henbane, one grain.

Mix, and make one pill.


24

ARROW-ROOT.

AROMATIC CHALK POWDER.

Pulvis Gretas Aromaticus.
This preparation is introduced into the new British Pharma-
copoeia as a substitute for the aromatic confection. It is a proper
addition to sethereal and tonic remedies in low fevers, relaxation
of the bowels, and other affections where warm stimulants are
indicated. Dose, thirty to sixty grains, mixed with ten drachms
of camphor-julep, or the infusion of cascarilla, two drachms of
peppermint-water, and half a drachm of sal-volatile.

SIMPLE AROMATIC DRAUGHT.

Take of
Powdered rhubarb, ten grains.
Aromatic chalk powder, thirty grains.
Peppermint water, six drachms.
Distilled water, six drachms.
Syrup of ginger, one drachm.

Mix.

CORDIAL DRAUGHT FOR RELAXED BOWELS.

Take of
Aromatic chalk powder, thirty grains.
Tincture of catechu, one drachm.
Sal-volatile, twenty minims.
Cinnamon-water, eleven drachms.
Syrup of poppies, one drachm.

Mix.

ARROW-ROOT.

French. Arrow-root.
German. Pfeilwurzel.
A most wholesome, nutritious, and agreeable aliment; sup3rior
to sago, tapioca, rice, or any other farinaceous substance. It
makes a better food for infants than either bread, biscuits, or
rusks.
Directions for making the Jelly,Put into a basin a dessert-


ASSAFCETIDA.                                                   25

spoonful of the powdered root, and mix it with as much cold water
as will make it into a soft paste; then pour on it half a pint of
boiling water, stirring it briskly, and boil it a few minutes, when
it will become a clear, smooth jelly; to which add two or three
tablespoonfuls of sherry, or other white wine, a little lemon-peel,
and sugar. Lemon or Seville orange-juice may be added, if agree-
able. If it is intended for very young children, milk may be sub-
stituted for water and wine. When required for invalids affected
with relaxation of the bowels, such as occur in consumptive
persons, a dessert-spoonful of the tincture of rhatany root is an
excellent substitute for wine. Arrow-root is now extensively
prepared in this country from the potato, and in the island of
Portland from the roots of the Arum maculatum, or wake robin :
these kinds are very inferior to the genuine arrow-root, which
also varies considerably in quality and price.

ASSAFCETIDA.*

French. Assafoetida.

German. Teufelsdreck, Stinkender Asand.

Italian. Assafetida.

This substance is used as a stimulant and anti-spasmodic in
hysterical and nervous diseases, and spasmodic cough; as an ex-
pectorant in asthma; and as a carminative in flatulent colic. The
usual dose is from five grains to half a drachm, combined, if
necessary, with expectorants in coughs, and with chalybeates and
aloetics in hysterical complaints. The following formula will
sometimes allay obstinate attacks of spasmodic cough, and has
been found useful even in hooping-cough :—

* Assafoetida was used by the ancients as a condiment, under the names of
Silphion and Laserpitium. In Persia it is still esteemed as a condiment and
mixed with almost all their dishes. Gastronomers, as the French term those
who delight in the pleasures of the palate, among the moderns, employ it for
the same purpose; having the hot-plates on which they eat beef-steaks
rubbed with a shallot, the Allium ascalonicum of linnseus.

C


26

asses' milk.

Take of
Assafcetida, half a drachm.
Mindererus's spirit, two ounces.
Pennyroyal water, two ounces.
Mix. and take one or two tablespoonfuls for a dose.

ANTI-HYSTERIC MIXTURE.

Take of
Assafcetida, one drachm.
Mint-water, one ounce and a half.
Rub the assafcetida gradually with the water,

and when well mixed, add
Ammoniated tincture of valerian, two drachms.
Tincture of castor, three drachms.
Rectified eether, one drachm.
Mix.—One tablespoonful every two hours.

For the relief of colic in the bowels, the following clyster may
be administered :—

Take of
Assafcetida, two drachms.
Thin gruel, ten ounces.
Mix.

ASSES' MILK.

Artificial.—There are several ways of preparing this, but two
will suffice.

1.—Boil in three pints of water till half wasted, one ounce each
of eryngo root, pearl barley, sago, and rice; strain, and put a
tablespoonful of the mixture into a coffee-cup of boiling milk, so
as to render it of the consistence of cream. Sweeten it with
sugar or honey to suit the taste.

2.—Take two large spoonfuls of good hartshorn shavings, two
ounces of pearl barley, one ounce of eryngo root, the same quan-
tity of china root and preserved ginger; boil the whole in three
quarts of water till reduced to three pints. Then boil a pint of
new milk, mix it with the rest, and put into it half an ounce
of balsam of tolu. Dose, half a pint morning and night. The


BALSAM, COPAIVA.                                             27

milk of the ass and the camel, and in northern countries that of
the goat, is principally employed for medicinal purposes. When
infants are nursed on cows' or asses' milk, it is of the greatest
importance to give it directly from the animal, as the atmosphere
speedily makes a great change in this delicate fluid. If this
be not possible, it ought to be carefully covered and kept warm,
by placing the vessel containing it over boiling water. This is
generally done when asses' milk is given as a medicine, and is
probably one great cause of the good effects arising from it.
A pint of warm milk from the cow, with a little sugar or honey,
and a tablespoonful of good rum, has frequently been found
successful in chronic debility, when the milk of asses or women
has failed.

BAEL.
Ext. Belse Liquid.
Indian bael has been much recommended in India for diarrhoea
and dysentery, but experience does not prove it to be superior to
many other vegetable astringents. It is given in the form of
decoction, made by boiling down two ounces of the dried fruit
slowly with a pint of water to one-fourth. In severe attacks of
dysentery, three tablespoonfuls of this decoction are administered
every second or third hour. The preparation of it in the British
Pharmacopoeia, is the fluid extract, the dose of which is one or two
teaspoonfuls three times a day. A preserve prepared with sugar is
also recommended for patients labouring under bowel complaints.

BALSAM, COPAIVA.

Ì                           French. Baume de Copahu.

German. Copaiva Balsam.
Italian. Balsamo Copeviano.
Stimulant, diuretic, and laxative. It seems to act more power-
fully on the urinary passages than any of the other resinous fluids ;
hence its use in gleets, and in fluor albus. It has also been pre-
scribed of late with peculiar advantage in these diseases, com-
bined with the tinctures of cubebs and buchu leaves. It may be

c 2


28                                           BALSAM, PERUVIAN.

given in doses of from fifteen to forty drops twice or thrice a day,
either upon water or rubbed into an emulsion by the aid of yolk
of egg, or gum arabic, as in the following forms :—

Take of
Mucilage of gum arabic, one drachm and a half.
Balsam of copaiva, half a drachm.
To be well rubbed together in a mortar j then

add by degrees,
Peppermint or cinnamon water, one ounce.
Tincture of capsicum, five minims.

Mix.

Take of
Compound powder of tragacanth, four drachms.
Spirit of nitre, one drachm.
Balsam of copaiva, one drachm.
Syrup of mulberries, half an ounce.
Distilled water, seven ounces.

Mix.—A third part may be taken three times a day.

BALSAM, PERUVIAN.

French. Baume de Pèrou.

German. Peruvianischer Balsam.

Italian. Balsamo Peruviano.
This balsam has been recommended in doses of half a drachm
to a drachm as a stimulant in chronic rheumatism, and it appears
to have been effectual in some obstinate cases. In chronic asthma
and old dry coughs it is said to have proved a serviceable expec-
torant. Mixed with twice its weight of spermaceti ointment, and
applied to indolent sores, it will sometimes improve and cleanse
them. One ounce of white cerate, made wTith almond oil, and
fifteen drops of Peruvian balsam, wTell mixed by trituration, form
an excellent lip-salve. A mixture composed of one drachm of the
balsam and three drachms of ox-gall, is useful, when dropped into
the ear every day, after syringing with solution of soap, in fetid
discharges from that organ.


BARK, PERUVIAN.

29

BALSAM, FRIAR'S.*

French. Teinture de Ben join composèe.

German. Zusammengesetze Benzoe tinktur.

Italian. Alcoole Benzoato composito.
Internally it is given in doses of half a drachm to two drachms,
rubbed up with mucilage, yolk of egg, or water, as a stimulant,
expectorant, and anti-spasmodic, in chronic catarrh and asthma.
Externally, it was long celebrated as a styptic for the speedy cure
of fresh wounds, cuts, &c.; but nothing could be more improper
as it is stimulant and irritating.

BARK, PERUVIAN.

French. Quinquina.

German, Chinarinde, or Peruvianische Rinde.

Italian. China.
The highly valuable and restorative qualities of bark; its spe-
cific effect in the cure of intermittent and low fevers, and of
complaints arising from a general relaxation of the system, induced
by intemperance or residence in warm climates, and its property
of restoring and increasing the general health and strength, &c,
are so generally known as to render unnecessary any further
remark on its efficacy. It may, however, be wTell to observe,
that bark in substance has fallen into considerable disuse, since
the discovery of sulphate of quinine, a substance which con-
tains all the active principles of the bark divested of extraneous
matter, and the dose being consequently small, it is less likely to
produce nausea or any derangement of the stomach. In intermittent
and other fevers the bark has frequently failed, from the inability
of the patient to retain on the stomach a sufficient quantity in sub-
stance, or by its passing off too rapidly by the bowels. Previously
to the use of bark in intermittent and low fevers, the stomach
and intestines ought to be cleared by the exhibition of some mild
emetic and purgative; after the operation of which, and in the
absence or remission of fever, it may be given in doses of half

* Compound tincture of benjamin.


30

BARK, CANKLLA.

a drachm, one, two, or even three drachms, (if the stomach will
bear so large a quantity,) every three or four hours, leaving it off
as soon as the fever recurs, and substituting for it the saline
draught. When the stomach is too delicate to bear the bark in
substance, it may be taken in the form of a decoction, which is
to be prepared as follows :—

Take of Yellow bark in gross powder, ten drachms.
Pure water, one pint.

Boil them together for ten minutes in a close vessel, then strain
the decoction for use. The dose is three or four tablespoonfuls
three or four times a day.

The following draught has frequently cured a fit of ague when
the sulphate of quinine has failed :—

Take of
Decoction of bark, ten drachms.
Diluted sulphuric acid, fifteen minims.
Syrup of orange-peel,
Tincture of cardamoms,
Of each one drachm.
Mix. —This draught may be taken every six hours.

BARK GARGLE.

Take of
Decoction of bark,

Infusion of roses, of each three ounces and a half.
Honey of roses, one ounce.
Tincture of myrrh, two drachms.
Muriatic acid, ten minims.

Mix, and make a gargle.

BARK, CANELLA.

French. Canelle Blanche.
German. Weisser Zimmt, Canell.
Italian. Canella Bianca.

This bark is stimulant and slightly tonic. It is a useful


BARK, CASCARILLA.                                            31

adjunct to bitters in some cases of dyspepsia ; but it is employed
chiefly on account of its flavour, and to correct the griping quality
of resinous cathartics. The dose of the powdered bark is from
ten grains to half a drachm. It is also one of the ingredients in
the liquor called usquebaugh, a compound used with advantage
by persons of gouty habit, or those who are liable to spasm or
cramp in the stomach. The following is a good form for making
usquebaugh : —

Take of Best Brandy, one gallon.

Raisins stoned, one pound.

Cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs, canella bark, and carda-
moms, of each one ounce, bruised well together in a
mortar.

Saffron, half an ounce.

Kind of two Seville oranges.

And brown sugar-candy, one pound.

Shake these well every day for at least fourteen days, when
the liquor will, at the expiration of that time, be ready to be
Altered for use.

BARK, CASCARILLA.

French. Ecorce de Cascarille.
German. Cascarillrinde.

Italian. Cascariglia.

Is carminative and tonic ; and is an excellent adjunct to Peru-
vian bark, rendering it, by its aromatic qualities, more agreeable
to the stomach, and increasing its powers. It is valuable in
dyspepsia and flatulent colic, in dysentery and diarrhoea, and in
the gangrenous thrush peculiar to children. The infusion is the
best form in which cascarilla can be administered. It is also a
good vehicle for several preparations of iron, bismuth, and other
metallic tonics, to which the tincture of cascarilla may be added,
as in the following recipe :—


32                                           BARK, OAK.

Take of
Infusion of cascarilla, five ounces.
Ammonio-citrate of iron, one scruple.
Tincture of cascarilla, half an ounce.

Mix.
Two or three tablespoonfuls may be taken three times a day.

The peculiar odour, which depends on the volatile oil it con-
tains, is exhaled when the bark is burnt, on which account it is
thus used in India to diffuse an agreeable smell in the houses of
the natives.

BARK, OAK.

French. Ecorce de Chène.

German. Eichinrinde.

Italian. Corteccia della Quercia.
Oak bark is a valuable astringent, whether administered inter-
nally or applied externally, and may be used in all cases requiring
astringents. The external application and topical use of the
decoction is more frequent and beneficial than its internal admi-
nistration. In the falling of the fundament, leucorrhcea, and
uterine hsemorrhage, it .may be advantageously used as a lotion
and injection ; and as a gargle in relaxed sore-throats.

Take of
Decoction of oak bark, one pint,
Powdered alum, half an ounce.

Mix.

Take of
Oak bark, bruised, six drachms.
Distilled water, ten ounces.
Boil for ten minutes ; then strain off four ounces, and add the
same quantity of infusion of linseed.

Used in uterine discharges.


BEBEERLNE, SULPHATE OF.

33

BASILIC POWDER.
PULVTS BASCILICUS.

This is a very good medicine, as a common purgative both for
adults and children. The usual dose is from twenty to thirty
grains mixed up with a little jelly. For children who are subject
to worms, this powder is sometimes very beneficial, in doses of
from two, five, or ten grains, according to the age of the child,
given every third morning, taking care that the child does not
drink any cold fluid during its operation.

JBAUME DE VIE,

OR COMPOUND DECOCTION OF ALOES.

This is a mild and commendable remedy where a warm and
stomachic aperient is required, which is often the case in hys-
terical and hypochondriacal affections, and in certain spasmodic
disorders, where the bowels have become torpid from the use of
opiates. Its purgative quality may be increased by the addition
of tincture or infusion of senna; and the mixture is far from
being so unpleasant to the palate as the nature of its components
would lead us to expect. The dose is from half an ounce to an
ounce and a half. It is often of singular service in green-sickness,
jaundice, and in dyspepsia, as it corrects acidity, and promotes
the action of the stomach and bowels.; in such cases, half an
ounce or six drachms may be taken every other morning, mixed
with an equal quantity of some aromatic water, or bitter and
stomachic infusion. The union of steel with this decoction proves
very advantageous in many cases of sluggish uterine function.
One ounce of this decoction contains four grains of the extract of
aloes.

BEBEERINE, SULPHATE OF.

Sulphate of Bebeerine is considered to be a powerful and
valuable anti-periodic and febrifuge in intermittent and remittent
fevers, in periodic headache, neuralgia, and tic-douloureux. It is

c 3


34                                             BISMUTH, WHITE.

not so powerful as quinine : hence it can be taken in some cases
when the stomach will not bear that remedy.

It may be given in the form of pills made up with confection
of roses, or in solution, a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid being-
added to render it perfectly soluble. As a general tonic it may
be given in doses of one grain to three grains. In the treatment
of ague in the East and West Indies, it has been given in doses of
eight to twenty grains, three or four times a day.

BISMUTH, WHITE.

Syn. Nitrate of Bismuth.

Sub-nitrate of Bismuth.
Tris-nitrate of Bismuth.

This preparation has been extensively used in many cases with
advantage as a tonic and anti-spasmodic in chronic diseases of
the stomach, as gastrodynia, cardialgia, and pyrosis, also iu inter-
mittent fever and in some forms of vomiting and protracted
diarrhoea. Dr. Trousseau successfully prescribed bismuth in the
diarrhoea of children, in the form of an enema, in the proportion
of two scruples mixed with thick linseed tea. Combined with
the compound rhubarb pill, or the extract of hops, it has been
given with advantage in chronic dyspepsia.

Externally, it is used in* the form of a lotion, to array irritation
in certain skin diseases. It is also employed as a cosmetic, but
is said to ÌDJure the skin, rendering it after a time yellow and
leather-like.

Dose, from five to ten grains, gradually increased to fifteen, in
the form of powder, bolus, linctus, or pills, twice or thrice a day,
after meals.

GASTRODYNIA, SPASMODIC PAIN IN THE STOMACH.

White bismuth, one drachm.

Mucilage of gum arabic, sufficient quantity to make a mass ;
then divide this mass into eighteen pills-


BORAX.

35

GASTRODYNIA WITH FLATULENCE.

White bismuth,

Carbonate of magnesia, of each half a scruple.
Mucilage of gum arabic, one drachm and a half.
Rub these well together, then add

Orange-flower water, two drachms and a half.
Sal-volatile, one drachm.
Camphor j ulep, ten drachms.
Syrup of tolu, half a drachm.
Mix.—This draught is recommended by Dr. Copland.

The solution of bismuth of the British Pharmacopoeia is an
elegant and useful formula for administering bismuth, as well as
the lozerges, which contain two grains of sub-nitrate of bismuth
to each lozenge.

BLACK DROP.

This medicine has long been known and esteemed in the north
of England by the name of the Quaker's Black Drop; and its
popularity with persons who use opium habitually is one of the
strongest evidences of its superiority over laudanum.

It is well known that in many constitutions the effects of
common opium or laudanum are extremely distressing, and that
in all habits it produces some inconvenience, often creating rest-
lessness and delirium, instead of producing sleep, and its use
being generally succeeded by headache, sickness, and debility.
Of these deleterious properties the black drop is, by a chemical
process, wholly deprived, while it retains, in the fullest degree,
all the desirable powers of opium. This preparation is applicable
to all the cases in which opium or laudanum is employed; it is
highly concentrated, one drop being nearly equal to four of
common laudanum.

BORAX.

French, Borate de Sonde.
German. Borax,
Italian, Borato di Soda.
Borax is extensively employed on the Continent in the treat-


36                                      BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM.

ment of infantile diseases. It has a mild resolvent action, and is
given in cases of acidity of the primse viae and aphthous excoria-
tions of the mouth and fauces of children, in the following
forms :—

Take of
Carbonate of magnesia,
Powdered white sugar, of each five grains.
Powdered borax, four grains.
Mix, and make a powder; to be taken twice a day for acidity.

Take of
Honey of borax, one drachm.
Distilled water, one ounce.
Mix.—This linctus may be applied three times a day, in affec-
tions of the mouth, by means of a camel's-hair pencil.

The following is a pleasant application to the throat and gums
when under the influence of mercury :—

Take of
Powdered borax, two drachms.
Eose water, seven ounces.
Clarified honey,

Tincture of myrrh, of each half an ounce.
Mix well together, and use the mixture frequently as a gargle
during the day.

Borax, combined with tincture of myrrh, is much recommended
by Mr. Saunders as a common wash for the mouth, particularly
where the gums are spongy. The late Sir Astley Cooper strongly
recommended a lotion of borax for chapped nipples.

BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM.

POTASSII BROMIDUM.

French. Bromure de Potassium.
German. Brom Kalium.

Bromide of potassium is analogous in some of its effects to


BtTCHU LEAVES.                                                 37

iodide of potassium, and was introduced into medical practice by
Dr. Eobert Williams, as an alterative and deobstruant in chronic
enlargement of the liver, spleen, bronchocele, goitre, scrofulous
swellings, &c. It seems to have a special power in subduing
irritation in hysteria, and in procuring sleep in nervous persons
where there is no disease. Dr. Radcliffe gives very decided tes-
timony in favour of its use in hysterical and epileptic cases of a
most dissimilar character ; and Dr. Sieveking concurs in ascribing
to it the greatest efficacy in keeping off attacks of epilepsy for
years. Dr. Beaman has also published the results of his practical
experience of this medicine in the treatment of epilepsy, claiming
for it the most marked success.

The dose varies from live to thirty grains, three times a day.
In larger doses it acts as a narcotic.

Take of
Bromide of potassium, one scruple.
Orange-flower water, three ounces and a half.
Syrup of orange-peel, half an ounce.

Mix. —A fourth part every six hours in chronic enlargement of
the liver and spleen.

BUCHU LEAVES.
DIOSMA CRENATA.

French. Bucco.
German. Buchu blatter.

Diuretic, combined with a tonic power which greatly enhances
their value. They are administered in the forms of infusion and
tincture. The former is made with half an ounce of the leaves
and half a pint of boiling water, allowing them to stand three or
four hours in a closely-covered vessel; about a wine-glassful of
this infusion is taken twice or thrice a day. At the Cape of Good
Hope, and even in this country, this medicine has lately been
esteemed as a valuable remedy for rheumatism, fluor albus, gleet,
affections of the bladder and kidneys. —See Tincture of Buchu.


38

BUJRGUNDY PITCH.

Take of
Infusion of buchu, eleven drachms.
Powdered tragacanth, five grains.
Tincture of buchu, one drachm.

Mix.—This draught maybe taken in rheumatism and affections
of the mucous surfaces, particularly those of the urinary organs.

Take of
Infusion of buchu, seven ounces.
Tincture of musk seeds, one ounce.
Sal volatile, two drachms.

Mix.—Two tablespoonfuls of this mixture once or twice a day
will be found extremely efficacious in gravel and general nervous-
ness of the system.

Take of
Infusion of buchu, ten drachms.
Mucilage of gum arabic, one drachm.
Tincture of muriate of steel, ten minims.
In gleet and fluor albas.

BUEGUNDY PITCH.

French. Poix de Bourgogne.

German. Burgundisches Pech.

Italian. Pece di Burgunda.
Forms an excellent adhesive and gently stimulant plaister,
exciting some degree of irritation, and often a slight serous
exudation from the parts to which it is applied. It will remain
adherent to the skin for a long time, and it is usefully applied to
the chest in catarrhal affections, and to the loins in rheumatism
and lumbago. Upon some skins a Burgundy pitch plaister, or
any similar application, creates incessant itching, and excites a
pimply eruption, attended by almost unbearable irritation, so that
it is frequently necessary to remove it. In these instances, how-
ever, it often does great service, especially in chronic rheumatism,
where it may thus prove as effectual as a blister.


CALOMEL.

39

CALOMEL.

French. Calomel.
German. Calomel.
Italian. Mercurio dolce sublimato, or Calomelano.

This mercurial preparation is more extensively and more use-
fully employed than almost any other article of the Materia.
Medica.
But its principal use is as a purge, conjoined with other
aperients ; and for this purpose it is administered in doses of from
three to six grains, combined with, or followed by, cathartic
extract, rhubarb, senna, or other laxatives. The most customary
form is five grains of calomel in a pill at night, and a Seidlitz
powder early in the morning, or the following draught:—

Take of
Epsom salts, three drachms.
Infusion of senna, fourteen drachm5!.
Tincture of senna, and
Compound spirit of lavender, of each one drachm.

Mix.

In affections of the liver, in various glandular diseases, and in
some cutaneous eruptions, calomel is celebrated as an alterative;
and, combined with diuretics, it singularly contributes to their
activity. In these cases, the usual dose is from a quarter of a
grain to two grains, night and morning, modifying the dose, and
that of the medicines combined with it, according to circum-
stances. In febrile affections of children, which are symptomatic
of a disordered state of the stomach and intestines, purges of
calomel and rhubarb almost always afford relief, and usually
bring away a large quantity of offensive matter from the bowels.
Where they produce this effect, they should be repeated at in-
tervals of two or three days, till the motions assume a more
healthy aspect. Calomel is scarcely ever given alone, with the
view of obtaining its diaphoretic effect. When combined with
tartar emetic, James's powder, opium, or ipecacuanha, it certainly
contributes to the sudorific powers of these substances ; and in
croup no remedy proves so decidedly useful as calomel, in these


40                                                      CALOMEL.

combinations, administered after bleeding and purging. It is
necessary to observe, that all acids and acescent substances are
to be avoided whenever this or any other preparation of mercury
is employed.

The following are formulae illustrative of some of the applica-
tions of calomel:—

PURGATIVE.

Take of
Calomel, and compound extract of colocynth, of each fifteen

grains.
Eufus's pill, thirty grains.

Mix, and divide into twelve pills.

One or two for a dose.

STRONG PURGATIVE POWDER FOR CHILDREN.

Take of
Calomel, one grain.
Scammony,
Powdered jalap, of each two grains.

Mix.

A PURGATIVE IN FEVER, WHEN THE SKIN IS DRY.

Take of
Calomel and James's powder, of each four grains.
Compound extract of colocynth, three grains.

Mix, and divide into two pills.

OBSTINATE COSTIVENESS.

Take of
• Calomel, twelve grains.
Compound gamboge pill,

Compound extract of colocynth, of each fifteen grains.
Syrup of ginger, sufficient quantity to form twelve pills.
Dose, two at bedtime.


CAMPHOR.

41

CAMPHOR.

French. Camphrè.

German. Camp her.

Italian. Canfora.
Is used by many practitioners in low fevers, and in nervous
and spasmodic diseases, but with doubtful effect. In small doses,
for instance, of from one to three grains, it acts as a sedative and
diaphoretic. Persons who cannot procure rest, except from large
doses of opium, will sometimes succeed by combining smaller
doses with camphor. It is also a useful adjunct to bark, in typhus
fever ; to valerian, assafcetida, volatile alkali, and sethereals, in
hysteric and nervous complaints; and to antimonials and other
diaphoretics, in rheumatism and certain inflammatory disorders.
In cases of febrile action, where the object is to allay irritation,
promote perspiration, and induce sleep, the following mixture
may be resorted to :—

Take of
Camphor, twenty-five grains.
Rectified spirits, five minims.

Rub the camphor and the spirit well together in a mortar ;
then add,
Powdered gum arabic, four drachms.
Syrup of lemons, half an ounce.
Peppermint, or dillseed water, seven ounces.
Mix, and make an emulsion, of which three tablespoonfuls may
be taken for a dose.

Camphor is also employed externally in rheumatic and other
painful affections of the muscles, joints, &c. Its solutions in oil
and in spirit, and the compound camphor liniment of the Pharma-
copoeia, are good forms for these purposes. (See these Prepara-
tions.)
The camphorated soap has lately been much used for
scald-head, chapped hands, and chilblains. Monsieur Dupasquier
states that camphor is employed with advantage as a fumigation.
The patient is to be covered with a blanket, tied or pinned close
round the neck ; half an ounce or more of camphor is then thrown
on an iron plate, placed over a small chafing-dish within the


42                               CAMPHOR LINIMENT, COMPOUND.

blanket: the effect is a more copious perspiration than would be
produced by the heated air, owing to an absorption of camphor
which takes place. If this be correct, it might prove an excellent
addition to heated air in cases of malignant cholera. A very
concentrated solution of camphor in spirit, such as Quin's and
Kubini's, has been recommended as a cure for cholera, but the
remedy is only of use in the early stage of the disease, and during
the absence of the physician. The following is the mode of
administration :—Four drops should be given in a little sugar and
water every live minutes; in very severe cases the dose can be
increased to twenty drops.

CAMPHOR LINIMENT, COMPOUND.

LINIMENTUM CAMPHORiE COMPOSITUM.

French. Liniment de Camphre composee.

This is also a very useful stimulant application to sprains,
bruises, and rheumatic pains. It is likewise an excellent vehicle
for introducing opium into the system, by means of friction. An
embrocation, composed of one ounce and a half of this liniment
and half an ounce of tincture of opium, warmed and rubbed over
the surface of the abdomen, very quickly allays the pains of datu-
lent colic. The following compound liuiment, recommended by
Dr. Copland, has also been frequently used with decided benefit
in the above complaint:—

Take of
Compound soap liniment,

Compound camphor liniment, of each one ounce and a half.
Rectified oil of turpentine, two ounces.
Castile soap, two drachms.
Cajeput oil, one drachm.
Essence of lemon, one drachm.

Mix.

A piece of flannel well moistened with the above liniment, and
placed over the surface of the abdomen, very speedily allays the
pains of colic.


CALUMBO.                                                      43

CAMPHOR JULEP.

AQUA CAMPHOE^.

French. Julep Camphrè.
This solution of camphor forms a convenient vehicle for more
active stimulants, such as spirits of lavender, sal-volatile, and
ether, for lowness of spirits, hysterics, spasms of the stomach, &c.
The dose is from one to two ounces.

CAMPHOR JULEP, CONCENTRATED.

Thirty drops, mixed with two ounces or a wine-glassful of soft
water, form camphor julep, equal in every respect to the above
preparation.

CALUMBO.

French. Racine de Colombo.

German. Kolumbowurzel.

Italian. Columba.
Ts a very good simple bitter, and perhaps more agreeable to
delicate stomachs than most other medicines of this class; espe-
cially in the form of weak infusion, conjoined, if necessary, with
aromatics, in dyspepsia, in diarrhoea, and in the after-treatment
of cholera morbus. It has also a considerable power in allaying
irritability of the stomach accompanying pregnancy, and in
stopping the severe diarrhoea and vomiting which sometimes
attend dentition. The dose of the powdered root for adults is
from fifteen grains to half a drachm, repeated three or four times
a day.

STOMACHIC BITTER, DRAUGHT.

Take of
Infusion of calumbo, eleven drachms.
Muriated tincture of steel, fifteen minims.
Tincture of calumbo, one drachm.

Mix.


44

CARRAGEEN, OR IRISH MOSS.

CARRAGEEN, OB IRISH MOSS.

French. Oarragaheen.
German. Carragheen Moos.
This moss has long been highly esteemed by the peasants on
the western coast of Ireland as a dietetic remedy for various
diseases, more especially for consumption, dysentery, scrofula,
and affections of the kidneys and bladder. Dissolved, by being
boiled in water, it forms a thick mucilage, more pure and agree-
able than that produced from any other vegetable ; and the jelly
made from it is found to agree better with the stomach than any
of those prepared from animal substances. A decoction of the
moss, made by boiling half an ounce in a pint and a half of water
or milk until reduced to a pint, is- recommended as food for
children affected with scrofulous and rickety diseases, for such as
are delicate and weakly, and for infants brought up by hand, cr
after weaning. As an article of diet for invalids generally, it is
superior to isinglass, sago, and tapioca, being highly nutritious,
bland, and easy of digestion.

DIRECTIONS FOR USING THE MOSS MEDICINALLY.

8teep a quarter of an ounce of the moss in cold water for a few
minutes ; then withdraw it, (shaking the water out of each sprig,)
and boil it in a quart of new or unskimmed milk until it attains
the consistence of warm jelly ; strain and sweeten it to suit the
taste with white sugar or honey, or, if convenient, with candied
eryngo root: should milk disagree with the stomach, the same
proportion of water may be used instead. The decoction made
with milk is recommended for breakfast for consumptive patients,
and that with water will be found a most agreeable kind of
nourishment, taken at intervals during the day, the flavour being
varied with lemon-juice or peel, Seville orange-juice, cinnamon,
bitter almonds, wine, or any other material most congenial to the
palate.

The decoction in water is also taken for the relief of coughs, at
any time in the course of the day when they are most trouble-
some ; and it is for this purpose simply sweetened with honey or
sugar, or the syrup of poppies, syrup_ of squills, or the honey of


CASTOR OIL.

45

roses, as the case may indicate. It must, however, be admitted
that experience of the virtues of this moss in cough does not
justify the expectation that it will supersede the Iceland moss,
the bitter principles of which render it so valuable as a tonic as
well as a demulcent.

In dysentery, either the decoction in milk or water may be
administered with equal advantage; and in addition to the sweet-
ening matter, if a teaspoonful of the tincture of rhatany be mixed
with each cupf ul of it, tone will thereby be given to the intestines,
at the same time nourishment will be conveyed to the system,
and irritation prevented. A large teacupful of the decoction may
be taken three or four times a day.

Dr. Frank, of Wolfenbuttel, recommends the following com-
pound powder of Irish moss as a diet for consumptive patients,
and for children affected with Mesenteric disease:

Take of Irish moss, cleaned, half an ounce; spring w^ater, six-
teen ounces. Boil down to one half, strain with expression, and
add to the strained liquor white sugar, four ounces ; gum arabic,
in powder, one ounce; powdered orrice root, half an ounce.
Heat to dryness with a gentle heat, stirring constantly, so as to
obtain a pulverulent mass ; to which add three ounces of genuine
arrow-root. A jelly is prepared with this powder, by rubbing
a teaspoonful of it with a little cold water, and then pouring a
cupful of boiling water on it. It has a most agreeable odour and
taste, and is highly nutritious.

CASTOR OIL.

COLD DRAWN.

French. Huile de Ricin.
German. Bicinusol.
Italian. Olio di Bicino.

This oil is a valuable aperient; for while, in doses of from half
an ounce to an ounce, it thoroughly evacuates the bowels, it does
so with little irritation; hence it is especially useful in inflam-
matory cases, or where there is spasm, or where all increased
action of the system is particularly to be avoided. From its


46                                                  CASTOR OIL.

quick and mild operation, it is particularly adapted for children,
and females during pregnancy. Half a drachm to a drachm,
blended with a little sugar, is a common dose for an infant. It
is also the best purgative that can be employed in that affection
of the bowels known by the name of colica pictonum, or painter's
colic, the Devonshire colic, the dry belly-ache; and it is the more
useful in that disease, as it may be joined with opium and other
narcotics without having its purgative properties lessened. For
the same reason, castor oil is advantageously given in calculous
affections. It has also been regarded by some continental phy-
sicians as peculiarly well suited for expelling the tape-worm. It
is likewise considered the best purgative, when properly admi-
nistered, for combating habitual costiveness. For this purpose a
large dose must first be given in the morning, and the use of the
oil continued for some weeks, gradually diminishing the dose
daily, until half a teaspoonful only is taken ; on the discontinuance
of which the bowels continue to be relieved without further
resistance. One disadvantage attending the use of this oil is its
tendency to excite vomiting, but this is counteracted by combining
it with some aromatic. The best modes of exhibiting it in general
have been much canvassed; it is given floating on water, with a
small quantity of brandy poured over it, and when this can be
swallowed at once there is no better mode ; but as this cannot
always be done, it may be given with success in coffee or mutton
broth, or suspended in water by the intervention of mucilage or
yolk of egg, according to the taste of the patient. Upon the
whole, castor oil is a purgative of great value, and one whose
operation, as it is in daily use, should be well understood. A few
drops of laudanum will correct the griping or excessive purging
which sometimes occurs.

CASTOR OIL DRAUGHT.

Take of
Castor oil, six drachms.
The yolk of egg, sufficient quantity.
Peppermint-water, ten drachms.
Mix.
Triturate the oil with the yolk of egg, then add the peppermint-
water gradually, so as to form a draught.


CHALK, PREPARED.

47

CAYENNE PEPPER.
French, Poivre de l'Inde ou de GuinCe.
German. Spanischer PfefTer.
Italian. Pepperone.
It is a valuable article as the basis of a stimulating gargle, in
cases of incipient sore-throat, or of chronic relaxation in the soft
palate and fauces. It is, however, chiefly used as a condiment,
to prevent flatulence from vegetable food, and give warmth to the
stomach.

CHALK, PREPARED.

French. Craie preparèe.

German. Heine Kreide. Pràparirte Austerschaalen.

Italian. Creta preparata.
In doses of from ten to forty or fifty grains, combined with
aromatic chalk powTder and cinnamon-water, is serviceable in re-
lieving the relaxation of the bowels arising from acidity ; but it is
always best preceded by a purgative. It may be given to infants
in the dose of from three to five grains ; to older children, ten
grains. Mixed with water, it is oue of the best remedies for
counteracting the poisonous effects of oxalic acid on the stomach.

Take of
Gum arabic in powder, one drachm.
Cinnamon-water, one ounce.
Prepared chalk, half a drachm.
Syrup, one ounce.

Mix.

A teaspoonful may be given in infantile diarrhoea.

Take of
Prepared chalk, one drachm and a half.
Mucilage of gum arabic, three drachms.
Aromatic chalk powder, one drachm.
Jeremie's solution of opium, fifteen minims.
Camphor j ulep, three ounces.

Mix.—Two tablespoonfuls for an adult.


48

CHABCOAL.

CHALK MIXTURE.

This is prepared by triturating prepared chalk with powdered
gum arabic, syrup, and cinnamon-water, and is the basis of most
of the mixtures usually prescribed for diarrhoea and looseness of
the bowels. One ounce and a-half of this mixture with half a
drachm of aromatic chalk powder, five grains of rhubarb, twenty
drops of sal-volatile, and one drachm of compound spirit of
lavender, form an excellent draught for that purpose.

AROMATIC CHALK POWDER, WITH OPIUM.

PULVIS CRET^E AROMATICUS CUM OPIO.

The addition of opium greatly increases the efficacy of the
powder of chalk in diarrhoea. Two scruples of the powder
contain one grain of opium. Dose, from ten to twenty grains,
repeated occasionally in some demulcent mixture.

With children, the aromatic powder of chalk with opium acts
more energetically, and must be used with greater caution. Half
a grain to a grain may be given during the first six months, and
two grains after that period, three times a day, or four grains to
a child two years old.

CHARCOAL.

French. Charbon de Bois purine.

German. Reine Kohle.

Italian. Carbonne di Legna.
Levigated.—Is an antiseptic, and as such has been given inter-
nally to correct the putrid eructations of some kinds of dyspepsia.
But in order that it may produce this effect, it should either be
newly prepared, or such as has been preserved in very well
stoppered bottles. The dose is from ten to sixty grains combined
with rhubarb. Charcoal very finely levigated forms an excellent
tooth-powder : it cleanses the mouth mechanically and chemi-
cally ; but as alone it is dusty, and not easily miscible with
water, it may for this purpose be mixed with an equal weight of


CHLOROFORM,

49

prepared chalk, and, if requisite, scented with a drop or two of
some essential oil. The charcoal biscuits have lately been intro-
duced by Dr. Bird as an agreeable and efficacious diet for
dyspeptic invalids. Externally, as a poultice, it absorbs the
foetor of ulcers.

CHARCOAL (PURIFIED ANIMAL).

A valuable antidote in cases of poisoning by morphia, strychnia,
&c.

CHLORAL.

The discovery of the medicinal value of chloral is due to Dr.
Liebreich, of Berlin, and it has been introduced to the notice of
the profession in this country by Dr. Bence Jones. At the present
moment, although a variety of experiments have been made by
Dr. Richardson and others, as to its effects upon animals, it has
been but sparingly prescribed by medical men. The results of
these experiments would seem to prove that it acts as a hypnotic
and narcotic, and but very slightly as an anaesthetic. There seems
to be little doubt but that it will be a very valuable addition to
the materia medica.

CHLORIDES OP LIME AND SODA.

See Chlorine Fumigations.

CHLOROFORM.

The chief use of this substance is to produce anaesthesia, by
inhalation during surgical operations; it is also extensively used
in midwifery, to relieve pain and facilitate labour. Taken inter-
nally it acts as a sedative, narcotic, and anti-spasmodic ; five drops
on a lump of sugar will frequently check sea-sickness. Externally
it has been used in cancer senile, gangrene, and sloughing ulcers ;
and as an injection in discharges from the uterus. The following


5C

CHAMOMILE FLOWERS.

liniment will frequently be found efficacious in allaying severe
rheumatic pains.

Take of
Belladonna liniment, one ounce.
Chloroform, half an ounce.
Compound camphor liniment, half an ounce.
Mix.

CHLOROFORM, SPIRIT OF.

Is given as the preceding, and with the same effect, in doses of
ten to sixty minims :--

Take of
Spirit of chloroform, half a drachm.
Powdered gum arabic, half a drachm.
Camphor julep, four ounces.
Syrup of marshmallows, one drachm.
Mix.
A third part to be taken for a dose, as an anti-spasmodic and
stimulant.

CHEEETTAH, OR CHIRAYITA.

CHIRAYIT-GENTIAN.

A herb which has been held from time immemorial by the
natives of Bengal as a remedy for the varieties of indigestion
arising from inactivity, or disorder of the liver, and morbid
sensibility, or excitement of the stomach. The medicinal virtues
of this herb are imparted to boiling water, and the infusion is a
very grateful bitter : but the natives prefer the decoction, made
by gently boiling half an ounce of the cut dried herb, in a pint of
water, for about fifteen or twenty minutes. Of this decoction
they take a small wine-glassful, two or three times a day. The
extract, which also contains the virtue of the herb in great
perfection, is taken in form of pills. Dr. Fleming, late of
Bengal, speaks highly of the chirayita as a powerful tonic. Dr.
James Johnson, in his work on Tropical Diseases, also gives it
a high character; and Mr. Addison, the author of a treatise on
the Malvern water, says, '' that from the very beneficial effects it
had on himself, it is a valuable addition to this class of stomachic


CINNAMON.                                              51

medicines." The tincture, which contains all the virtues of this
herb, is a powerful stomachic bitter, and may be taken in doses
of two to three teaspoonfuls twice a day, in a little water.

CHAMOMILE FLOWERS.
French. Fleurs de Camomille.
German. Roemische Kamillen.

À strong tepid infusion of these flowers, administered in doses
of from three to four ounces, operates as a powerful emetic ; a
weaker infusion is a useful diluent in promoting the operation of
other emetics, when the stomach is weak and likely to be too
much oppressed by the use of simple water. A small teacupful
of cold chamomile tea, taken in the morning fasting, is often
serviceable in dyspeptic affections and intestinal debility. They
are also used, either alone or in combination with poppy-heads,
for fomentations in colic, but are little preferable to hot or warm
water ; excepting that the infused flowers, rolled up in a cloth or
flannel, serve to retain the heat of the application. Weak
chamomile tea is a most useful drink for children who are subject
to worms.

CINNAMON.
French. Cannelle.
German. Wahrer Zimmt.
Italian. Canella.

The principal use of this article is as an accompaniment to other
medicines, especially those which are bitter, nauseous, or flatulent
upon the stomach; at the same time it is often given for its
peculiar warmth and astringency in bowel complaints, and in
this case the tincture is a good form. In common diarrhoea, for
instance, three tablespoonfuls, three or four times a day, of the
following mixture, rarely prove ineffectual:—

Take of
Chalk mixture, four ounces.
Tincture of cinnamon, one ounce.
Mix.
See Chalk Mixture.

d 2


52                                                    COLCHICUM.

CLOVES.

French. Clous de Girofle.
German. Gewurznelken.
Italian. Garafano.

Are among the best aromatics ; and, added to bitter and other
infusions, they render them more agreeable both to the palate
and stomach. A drop or two of the oil of cloves corrects the
griping tendency of cathartic pills, and sometimes appears to
augment their efficacy. A five-grain pill, composed of equal
weights of powdered cloves and jalap, will generally evacuate
the bowels.

COLOCYNTH,

OR BITTER APPLE.

French. Coloquinte.
German. Koloquinten.
Italian. Coliquintida.

On account of its extreme bitterness, it is usually given
in the form of extract. See Compound Extract of Colocynth.
It is sometimes used in powTder, mixed with an equal pro-
portion of camphor, for keeping moth from furs, woollen
cloths, &c.

COLCHICUM,

OR MEADOW SAFPRON.

French. Colchique.
German. Herbstzeitlose.
Italian. Colchico Autumnale.

Was used by the ancients under the name of Hermodactylus,
by which name it was sold in the druggists' shops in this country
in the time of Turner, the herbalist. The surprising effects of an
empirical French remedy, the "eau mèdicinale" brought colchi*
cum into notice as a cure for gout, and few medicines are now so
generally employed. It possesses diuretic, purgative, and nar-


CONSERVE OE ROSES.

53

cotic properties, and has for many years formed the chief ingre-
dient in the various patent medicines for the cure of gout and
rheumatism. The "eau medicinale," and Dr. Wilson's celebrated
tincture for the gout, have been satisfactorily shown to be pre-
parations of colchicum. The_dose in powder is from two to eight
grains, but it is a medicine which often produces most unpleasant
symptoms, and requires great caution in its use. For further
particulars respecting this article, see the Tincture, the Wine, and
the Oxymel of Colchicum.
The Swiss peasants tie the bulbs of
colchicum round the necks of their children, as amulets, to pre-
serve them from disease. The dose of the extract of colchicum is
from one to two grains, in the form of pill.

COLLODION.

The chief use of this liquid is in its application to ordinary
superficial sores, cuts, burns, and abrasions of the skin, also to
some diseases where the indication is to protect the part from
external irritating influences. Professor Simpson, of Edinburgh,
recommends it for sore nipples, which it protects without interfer-
ing with the suckliug of the infant. In cases of burns where the
cuticle has been removed, and the symptoms of pain relieved by
suitable applications, collodion is found to be a most useful appli-
cation. It is also used to stop the bleeding from leech-bites.
The flexile collodion of the British Pharmacopoeia is preferable to
the ordinary collodion for all these purposes.

CONSERVE OF ROSES.

French. Conserve des Roses rouges.

German. Rosenconserve.

Italian. Conserve di Rose, or Canine.
Possesses a small degree of astringency, and is sometimes given
in doses of from one drachm to one ounce dissolved in new milk,
as a tonic in early convalescence from acute diseases ; it is also
used in the formation of pills, and as an occasional adjunct for
other more active remedies ; it is, for example, an excellent
vehicle for exhibiting the sulphate of quinine.


54

CREAM OF TARTAR.

CONFECTION- OF ALMONDS.

PULVIS AMYGDALIS COMPOSITUS.

French. Confection d'Amandes.
German. Mandelconfect.

This preparation, in the proportion of a drachm to an ounce
of distilled water, affords an expeditious mode of preparing the
almond emulsion, which is so well known as an agreeable drink
in inflammatory and febrile affections, and as a vehicle for re-
frigerants in fevers, and for expectorants in affections of the
lungs.

CONFECTION OF OPIUM.

CONFECTIO OPII.

Is a useful remedy in checking common diarrhoea, and some
forms of chronic rheumatism. Ten grains to one drachm are
given in such cases, combined with chalk mixture, camphor
mixture, or any of the aromatic waters. Forty grains of this
confection contain about one grain of opium.

CONFECTION OF PEPPER.

This preparation resembles Ward's Paste, and has been long in
repute as a remedy in piles and ulcers of the rectum. The dose
is from one to two drachms two or three times a day. Its
stimulating properties render it inapplicable where there is much
inflammation.

CREAM OF TARTAR.

French. Crème de Tartre.
German. Weinsteinrahm.
Italian. Cremore di Tartaro.

In doses of one drachm, repeated twice or thrice a day, this
preparation proves aperient, but is very apt to excite pain and
flatulence in the bowels. Mixed with sulphur, it is much used


CROTON OIL.

55

as a spring purgative in cases of piles; and in combination with
sugar and lemon-peel it forms the pleasant refrigerant drink
generally called Imperial, for which the following is the for-
mula : —

Take of

Cream of tartar, half an ounce.

White sugar, four ounces.

Fresh lemon-peel, half an ounce.

Boiling water, three pints.
Mix, and strain.

A cream of tartar whey may be made by adding to a pint of
milk (when it begins to boil) two drachms of cream of tartar ;
the pan must then be removed from the fire, the whole suffered
to cool, and the whey separated from the curd by straining : this
whey, diluted with warm water, is an excellent drink in dropsy.
Laxative lozenges for children are made by boiling together half
an ounce of cream of tartar, four ounces of manna, and ten ounces
of water, until the mass becomes of a proper consistence to divide
into lozenges of ten or twelve grains each.

ELECTUARY FOR PILES.

Take of
Sublimed sulphur, half an ounce.
Cream of tartar, one drachm and a half.
Lenitive electuary, one ounce.
Syrup, sufficient quantity to form an electuary.

A teaspoonful may be taken at bedtime.

CROTON" OIL.

French. Huile de Croton.
German. Crotonol.

Is perhaps the most powerful purgative known, operating in
a very short time after it is taken. It has been given with great
advantage in cases of obstinate and protracted constipation, or
where a violent evacuator is required, as in some cases of
apoplexy and injury of the brain, and in certain convulsive,


56

CUBEB, OR JAVA PEPPER.

hypochondriac, and maniacal affections. Many practitioners
speak highly of its use in neuralgia. The small doses m which
this oil produces its effects require the greatest caution to be
observed in its administration; and it is seldom prescribed
except in extreme cases. The dose is from one to five drops,
made into pills with crumbs of bread, or combined with mucilage
of gum, sugar, and almond mixture, in the form of an emulsion ;
or by triturating two parts of the oil with one part of soap-
boilers' ley, till the combination acquires the consistence of soap,
which is given in doses of from two to three grains in water or
sugar. Cases of tic-douloureux and spasmodic cholera are said
to have been relieved, and even cured, by small doses of croton
oil. Dr. Ainslie has prescribed it with great advantage in fric-
tions, in cases of chronic rheumatism, and tumours of the articu-
lations. As a counter-irritant, croton oil has been lauded by
several writers, and employed as such, in cases of croup, with
the most marked benefit.

CUBEB, OB JAVA PEPPEH.

French. Poivre Cubèbe.
German. Kubeben.
Italian. Peppere di Cubebe.

Cubebs are diuretic, and slightly purgative. In gonorrhoea and
gleets they have been long used by Oriental practitioners, and
the Arabs employ them in seasoning food. They are adminis-
tered most advantageously in the form of powder; but since the
volatile oil has been obtained in a separate state, it is very
frequently prescribed instead of the powder, and possesses the
advantage of not losing its properties by keeping. The dose of
the powder of cubebs, sufficient to produce the usual effect of the
medicine, is from one scruple to half a drachm, but it is some-
times requisite to augment the dose to one drachm three times
a day; and the best vehicle for taking the powder is milk. The
dose of the oil is from five to fifteen drops, in mucilage of gum
arabic, twice or thrice a day.


DANDELION.

DANDELION.

TARAXACUM.

French. Dent-de-Lion.
German. Lòwenzahn Wurzel.
Italian. Tarassaco.

Dandelion is a common plant of the fields of this country. It
possesses tonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, and alterative properties,
and has long been celebrated, both in this country and on the
Continent, as a diet drink in chronic affections of the liver,
jaundice, dropsy, and in diseases of the skin. In certain cases
of dyspepsia, much benefit is said to result from the use of this
medicine in large doses. Dr. W. Philip states, that it is best
adapted to those cases in which the bile is deficient or much dis-
ordered. Dr. Todd considered that "when given in an efficient
formula it is a most valuable remedy" in disordered digestion,
proceeding chiefly from derangement of the functions of the small
intestines. Sometimes dandelion is employed by the country-
people as an alterative in obstinate cutaneous eruptions : a decoc-
tion is made of the fresh root sliced, an ounce of which is put
into a pint of water; this is boiled down to half a pint, and
strained ; two drachms of cream of tartar are added to this quan-
tity ; and a wine-glassful is taken two or three times a day. In
dropsies, from hepatic obstruction, it is generally administered in
combination with a purgative. In some parts of Germany the
poorer people roast the dandelion roots, and take the decoction of
these for coffee. The leaves, also, are very commonly used in
France as a salad. (See Extract.)

Take of
Extract of dandelion, one drachm.
Bicarbonate of soda, half a drachm.
Comp. tincture of cardamoms, half an ounce.
Infusion of calumbo, two ounces.
Pimento water, three ounces and a half.

Mix, and make a mixture.

Dose, one-sixth part twice a day in chronic affections of the
liver.

d 3


Dover's powder.

Take of
Extract of dandelion, four drachms.
Warm water, seven ounces and a half.
Epsom salts, six drachms.
Tincture of rhubarb, two drachms.
Tincture of gentian, two drachms and a half.

Dose, two tablespoonfuls night and morning, in congestion of
the liver.

The evening dose to be accompanied with a compound rhubarb
pill.

DOVER'S POWDER.

French. Poudre d'lpecacuanha Composee.
German. Do vers Schinerzstillendes Pulver.
Italian. Polvere d'lpecacuanha ed Oppio.

This preparation is a valuable diaphoretic and sedative, as
opium can be given in this form when it would be hazardous in
any other. The diaphoretic influence of the ipecacuanha is aug-
mented by the opium, while the soporific quality of that narcotic
is greatly diminished by the ipecacuanha. The combined influ-
ence of both, exciting the cutaneous capillaries, produces a
powerful and certain sudorific effect. It is given in rheumatism,
gout, diabetes, dropsy, diarrhcsa, dysentery, and in inflammatory
and other fevers, in doses of from five to ten grains, in the form
of a pill or powder, when going to bed. Dr. Dover directed his
powder to be given in a glass of white wine posset, covering up
warm, and drinking about a quarter of the posset while sweating;
but the tepid drink should never be taken immediately after the
administration of the dose of the powder, otherwise it may be
rejected by vomiting. For some particular cases, as a conve-
nient mode of giving a combination of opium and ipecacuanha in
diseases of children, a liquid Dover's powder may be made in the
following manner :—


ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.

59

Take of
Ipecacuanha wine, two drachms.
Laudanum, two drachms.
Powdered nitre, a drachm and a half.
Lemon-juice, or solution of citric acid, four drachms.
Camphor julep, four ounces.

Two tablespoonfuls of this mixture are equal to ten grains of
the Dover's powder, and more certain to produce diaphoresis.

Dover's powder is a mild and safe opiate for children, and less
liable to disagree than perhaps any other. From a quarter to
half a grain may be given at a dose during the first three months ;
and from one grain to two, after a year old.

Ten grains of Dover's powder contain one grain of opium.

EAU DE LUCE.

This preparation is much esteemed as a stimulant and nervine
medicine, and is employed internally against spasms, hysteria,
and fainting, in doses of from ten minims to half a drachm, in
camphor julep, or plain water. Externally, it has been found
useful against the stings of insects.

ELIXIR OP VITRIOL.

ACLDUM SULPHURICUM AROMATICUM.

French. Elixir Vitriolique de Mynsicht.

German. Aromatische verdunnte Schwefelsaure.
This is an excellent stomachic, tonic, and stimulant, in nervous
and dyspeptic cases, combined with bark or quassia, and alone in
doses of from ten to thirty drops diluted with water. It is some-
times used for gargles, in the proportion of a drachm to a drachm
and a half, in half a pint of water, barley-water, &c. It is also
given with advantage to check internal haemorrhage, spitting
of blood, and profuse perspiration, arising from debility, hectic
fever, &c. Being astringent, it can be given without fear of pro-
ducing diarrhoea, common to the other mineral acids.


60                                           EPSOM SALT.

EPSOM SALT.

French. Sulphate de Magnèsie.

German. Schwefelsàure Magnesia.

Italian. Ossisolfato di Magnesia.
This is the most generally used, and the best of the saline
aperients. In doses of from half an ounce, it proves actively
purgative, especially if taken in a sufficient quantity of liquid; and
in smaller doses, repeated two or three times a day, it may be
conveniently given with tonics, to keep up a gentle action upon
the bowels. The best way of giving the Epsom salt is in the
infusion or confection of roses, acidulated wTith diluted sulphuric
acid, in which form it allays the vomiting which often occurs in
fevers, when other means fail. The effervescing Epsom salt,
being charged with fixed air, and possessing all the qualities of
the common Epsom salt, will be found much more pleasant, and
equally efficient as an aperient medicine, besides being more
adapted to the space afforded for this article in a medicine chest,
the dose being only one-half of that of the salt in crystals. The
crystals of Epsom salt very closely resemble oxalic acid, a most
virulent poison, and fatal accidents have resulted from mistaking
one for the other : there is, however, a very simple test, oxalic
acid being intensely acid, Epsom salt slightly bitter.

Take of
Infusion of roses, five ounces and a half.
Epsom salt, six drachms.
Syrup of lemon, half an ounce,

Mix.—One or two tablespoonfuls for a dose.

Take of
Epsom salt, two drachms.
Manna, two drachms.
Almond emulsion, four ounces.

Mix.

An infant between one and two years old may take a dessert-
spoonful of this mixture for a dose.


ESSENCE OF DILLSEED.                                         61

ESSENCE OP GINGER.
French. Teinture de Gingembre.
German. Ingwer Tinktur.
In disorders proceeding from impaired digestion, in flatulent
and spasmodic affections of the stomach, in hysterical and nervous
complaints, in gouty habits, and in debility of the system, from
whatever cause it may arise, the restorative powers of ginger are
well known. This concentrated essence is also highly beneficial,
during a course of sea-bathing, or the use of natural or artificial
mineral waters, such as Seidlitz, Cheltenham, &c. The dose is
from half to one teaspoonful, in any convenient vehicle, two or
three times a day.

ESSENCE OP PEPPERMINT.

German. PfeffermUnz Tinktur.

The essence of peppermint has uniformly been held in the
highest estimation, both by the profession and the public, as a
powerful carminative, cordial, exhilarant, and anti-spasmodic; its
chief recommendation to unprofessional persons is, that it is
always a safe and effectual medicine for relieving spasms in the
stomach, pain in the bowels, flatulence, and restoring the natural
warmth of the body.

The dose may vary according to the urgency of the attack,
from ten to thirty minims, either combined with water, or with
any liquid medicine which may be required at the moment.

ESSENCE OP CINNAMON.
French. Teinture de Cannelle.
German. Zimmt Tinktur.

ESSENCE OP DILLSEED.

French. Teinture d'Aneth odorant.
Ten or fifteen drops of any of these essences, mixed with a
wine-glassful of water, instantly form the waters bearing the
above names.


62                      ESSENCE OF SARSAPARILLA, COMPOUND.

ESSENCE OF PENNYROYAL.

French. Teinture de Pouliot.

ESSENCE OF JAMAICA SARSAPARILLA,
CONCENTRATED.

EXTRACT. SARZ.E LIQUIDUM.

French. Essence Concentred de Salsepareille Rouge.

The peculiar medicinal powers of sarsaparilla have long been
acknowledged, and it has justly been ranked among the most
valuable remedial agents which nature has furnished us with.
Its properties have been carefully examined, and physicians and
surgeons have recommended its administration in a vast number
of the diseases to which the human frame is liable. In scurvy,
scrofula, obstinate rheumatic affections, and in cutaneous erup-
tions, it has long been employed with very great success.

The ordinary dose of this highly concentrated preparation is a
dessert-spoonful twice or thrice a day, in a quarter of a pint of
tepid water, fresh table-beer, or new milk.

One tablespoonf ul is equivalent to half a pint of the decoction of
the British Pharmacopoeia, and is much more agreeable in taste
and appearance.

ESSENCE OF SARSAPARILLA, COMPOUND.

French. Essence Concentree de Salsepareille Rouge Composèe.
This concentrated preparation should be carefully made with
the red Jamaica sarsaparilla, and the other ingredients directed
by the Royal College of Physicians for making the compound
decoction. One tablespoonf ul, mixed with half a pint of spring
water, is equal to half a pint of decoction, and is much more
agreeable in taste and appearance.— Vide Sarsaparilla.


ETHER, RECTIFIED.                                       63

ESSENCE OF SENNA, CONCENTRATED.

French. Essence de Sènè Concentrèe.

This preparation contains all the properties of senna in a con-
centrated state : a drachm, or a teaspoonful, mixed with three
tablespoonfuls of water, forms the infusion of senna of the
Pharmacopoeia, or senna-tea. The common aperient medicine
(the black dose) used in most families is instantly made by dis-
solving a teaspoonful of Epsom salts in the above quantity of
essence.

ETHER, RECTIFIED.

French. Ether.
German. Schwefelàther.
Italian. Etere.

Is an active stimulant and anti-spasmodic, somewhat analogous
to alcohol, in its leading effects, though more powerful and less
permanent. It is sometimes prescribed in the low state of dis-
ease, and particularly in typhus fever. ' It is, however, employed
with much greater advantage in preventing the paroxysm of inter-
mittents, and as an anti-spasmodic in colic, cramp of the stomach,
spasms, convulsions, epilepsy, hysterics, asthma, and certain
other spasmodic and nervous affections. Externally applied, it
affords relief in headache, toothache, gout, and rheumatism. It
is also an excellent remedy in burns. It is usually given in doses
of twenty drops to one drachm in water or camphor-julep; but
the best form for giving ether is the following :—

Take of Distilled water, three ounces.
White sugar, one ounce.

Mix, and make a solution; then add, rectified ether, one
ounce.

The ether is here so suspended by the syrup, that it does not
fly off, and is easily swallowed; a teaspoonful of this mixture
may be given for a dose.


84

ETHER, SPIRIT OF.

In case of violent spasm, the following mixture is a very
effectual form :—

Take of

Rectified ether, half an ounce.

Camphor julep, seven ounces.

Compound spirit of lavender,

Sal volatile, of each two drachms.
Mix, and take two or three tablespoonfuls every hour, drinking
at intervals large quantities of warm water, and placing the
stomach tin, filled with hot water, and wrapped in flannel, upon
the chest. A small teaspoonful of ether, in a glass of white
wine, is often a most effectual remedy in allaying the most dis-
tressing symptoms of sea-sickness, and in restoring the tone of
the stomach after it. Ether, in a large dose, causes immediate
headache, obscurity of sight, and evident intoxication, accom-
panied with a sensation of burning heat in the stomach, and
tenderness of the epigastrium. These symptoms, however, are
transitory; and the effects of the intoxication are much sooner
dissipated than those produced by ardent spirits. M. Bourdier
has employed ether as a vermifuge; he gives a drachm in a wine-
glassful of cold decoction of the male fern : soon afterwards,
two drachms, in a sufficient quantity of the same decoction, are
administered as an enema, so as to fill the intestines with the
vapour of ether; and in another hour, two ounces of castor oil
are swallowed by the patient. The worms are thus first destroyed,
and afterwards expelled. The vapour of ether is so inflammable,
that the utmost caution is requisite in approaching it with a
lighted candle, and it should be kept in well-stoppered bottles.

ETHER, SPIRIT OP.
hofeman's ether.
French. Liqueur Anodine d'Hoffman.
German, Hoffman's Tropfen.
Italian. Anodino Minerale dell' Hoffman.
This is intended as a substitute for Hoffman's anodyne, the
composition of which he did not reveal. It differs chiefly from
rectified ether in containing less alcohol and some oil of wine.
As a narcotic, calming irritation and lulling to sleep, it would


EXTRACT OF COLOCYNTH, COMPOUND.                          65

seem, indeed, to be superior to ether itself, and will sometimes
succeed, in these respects, when even opiates fail. Being weaker,
it may be given more freely than ether. Half a drachm to a
drachm and a half is the medium dose.

Take of
Camphor julep, one ounce.
Compound spirit of ether, two drachms.
Compound tincture of cardamoms, half an ounce.
Spirit of aniseed, six drachms.
Oil of caraway, twelve minims.
Syrup of ginger, two drachms.
Peppermint-water, five ounces and a half.
Mix.—Two tablespoonfuls of this mixture may be taken occa-
sionally in flatulent colic.

EXTRACT OF COLOCYNTH, COMPOUND.

EXT. COLOCYNTH. COMP.

French. Extrait de Coloquinte Composèe.
German. Zusammengesetztes Coloquinten-Extrakt.
This is a very useful purgative extract, and is much used in
constipation of the bowels, in combination with calomel, blue pill,
or rhubarb, with a little oil of cloves or cinnnamon, to prevent
griping. Five grains each of blue pill and compound extract of
colocynth, mixed and divided into two pills, and taken at bed-
time, is an excellent purgative in bilious affections ; and when
torpidity of the liver exists, a Seidlitz powder should be taken
the following morning, to assist its operation. This extract is
also much used, in doses of five grains, as a warm stomachic
laxative, and is well suited for costiveness, so often attendant on
people of a sedentary life; and, upon the whole, it is one of the
most useful compounds in the Pharmacopoeia.
Take of

Compound extract of colocynth, twenty-six grains.

Extract of jalap, two scruples.

Powdered rhubarb, oue scruple.

Calomel, sixteen grains.

Syrup of ginger, a sufficient quantity to form twenty-three pills.

Dose, one or two at bedtime, as a cathartic.


66

EXTRACT OF CHAMOMILE.

EXTEACT (AQUEOUS) OF ALOES.

French. Extrait d'Aloòs.
German. Aloe-Extrakt.
Italian. Estratto d'Aloe.
Is employed for the same purposes as the aloes, and, being freed
from all mechanical impurities, is said to be less stimulant and
griping. Ten or fifteen grains, taken in the form of two or three
pills, effectually empty the bowels.

EXTRACT OP CANNABIS INDICA.

EXTRACT OF INDIAN HEMP.

The complaints in which Indian hemp have been specially
recommended are neuralgia, gout, rheumatism, tetanus, hydro-
phobia, epidemic cholera, hysteria, delirium tremens, and uterine
hemorrhage. It is a powerful narcotic, causing sometimes in-
toxication, delirious hallucinations, drowsiness, and stupor. In
its narcotic effects it differs from opium by not diminishing the
appetite, or constipating the bowels. The strength of the extract
made in this country varies much in strength, but the usual dose
is from a quarter of a grain to one grain, in a pill. The tincture
from five to twenty minims, with a drachm of mucilage of gum
arabic and an ounce of water, the tincture being first triturated
with the mucilage, to prevent the separation of the resin.

Twenty minims of the tincture contain one grain of the extract.

EXTRACT OF CHAMOMILE.

French. Extrait de Camomille.
German. Kamillen-Extrakt.
Italian. Estratto di Camomillo.

In doses of from five to ten grains, in the form of pill, twice or
thrice a day, is an agreeable stomachic bitter.


EXTRACT OF HEMLOCK.

07

EXTRACT OF DANDELION.

French, Extrait de Pissenlit.
German. Lowenzahn-Extrakt.
Italian. Estratto di Tarassaco.

Aperient and diuretic. Dose, thirty to sixty grains, five or six
times a day, dissolved in some aromatic water. For its virtues,
see Dandelion.

FLUID EXTRACT OF DANDELION,

OR INSPISSATED JUICE.

Is given as the preceding, and with the same effect, in doses of
a dessert-spoonful twice a day in wTater. When prepared at the
proper time of the year from the juice freshly expressed from the
roots and evaporated by means of a current of warm air, this is
perhaps the most effective of the preparations of dandelion.

EXTRACT OF GJ-ENTIAN.

French. Extrait de Gentiane.

German. Enzian-Extrakt.

Italian. Estratto di Gentiano.
Stomachic and tonic. Is an excellent bitter, chiefly used in
combination with sulphate of iron, &c, in the form of pill, in
doses of from ten to twenty grains.

EXTRACT OF HEMLOCK.

French. Extrait de Cigue.

German. Schierlings-Extrakt.

Italian. Estratto del' erba della Cicuta.
In chronic rheumatism much benefit has been derived from the
administration of hemlock; and in chronic sciatica it has pro-
duced more beneficial effects than any other medicine. Hemlock
is also employed externally to allay the pain of irritable ulcers
and cancerous sores. The dose of the extract is from one to six
grains, and it may be gradually carried to half a drachm. Hem-
lock, upon the whole, is a medicine of considerable power, and


68                                    ' EXTRACT OF HENBANE.

merits more attention than has hitherto been paid to it by British
practitioners. Mr. Pettigrew states, that no remedy will relieve
muscular spasms with such certainty as hemlock.

The following pills are very effectual in allaying common
cough :—

Take of
Extract of hemlock,
Dover's powder, of each five grains.
Mix, and divide into four pills, two to be taken at bedtime.

Dr. Paris states that a combination of hemlock with hyos-
cyamus, in the following mixture, affords a very effectual pal-
liative for coughs and pulmonary irritation :—

Take of
Extract of hemlock,

Extract of henbane, of each three grains.
Mucilage of gum arabic, two drachms.

Hub these well together, then add,
Mindererus's spirit,
Distilled water, of each half an ounce.
Syrup of red poppies, one drachm.
Mix, and make a draught, to be taken every four hours.

EXTKACT OF HENBANE,

French. Extrait de Jusquiame.
German. Bilsenkraut-Extrakt.
Italian, Estratto di Giusquiama Nera.

When given in sufficient doses, henbane operates as a decided
narcotic, and in its general effects much resembles opium ; but it
does not constipate, or affect the head ; on the contrary, its ten-
dency is rather to relax the bowels. Extract of henbane is given
in doses of from one to five grains, repeated three or four times
a day. In large doses it acts as a violent poison. In cases accom-
panied with cramps, spasms, or convulsions, it may be combined
with ipecacuanha, or James's powder ; or, if much languor be
present, with serpentaria. In habitual costiveness it may be
conjoined with cathartics, which it deprives partly of their irri-


EXTRACT OF JALAP.

GO

tating and griping quality, without otherwise affecting their
operation.

Take of
Eennel-water, four drachms.
Antimonial wine, one drachm.
Extract of henbane, three grains.
Syrup of marshmallows, one ounce and a half.
Mix.

An infant from six to twelve months old may take a teaspoonful
every two hours, as a cough mixture.

Take of
Extract of henbane, ten grains.
Antimonial wine, two drachms.

Mix.

Dose, ten drops three or four times a day to an infant with
hooping-cough.

ANTI-SPASMODIC PILLS.

Take of
Camphor,

Carbonate of ammonia, of each three grains.
Ipecacuanha, one grain.
Extract of henbane, four grains.
Mucilage, sufficient quantity to make three pills. One or two
for a dose.

EXTBACT OF JALAP.

French. Extrait de Jalap.

German. Jallappen wurzel-Extrakt.

Italian. Estratto di Scialappa.
Is similar in its effects, but not preferable to the powder, in
doses of ten grains to one scruple. It is apt to gripe, unless
triturated with soap, or made into an emulsion with almonds,
gum arabic, or sugar.


70

EXTRACT OF LOGWOOD.

EXTRACT OF LETTUCE.

French, Extrait de Laitue.
German. Gittlattig-Extrakt.
Italian. Estratto dell' erba della Lactuca.

The narcotic properties of lettuce were very early known. The
extract is given in doses of from five to ten grains, either alone or
united with an equal quantity of squill pill, and is frequently
serviceable in relieving the chronic cough of old and consumptive
persons.

ELATERIUM.

French. Elaterium.
German. Elaterium.

Is one of the most powerful cathartics in the Materia Medica.
Its efficacy in dropsies is considerable ; it requires, however, very
great caution in its exhibition. From the eighth to the half of a
grain may be given at first, and repeated at proper intervals until
it operates.

DROPSICAL COMPLAINTS.

Elaterium, one grain.
Spirit of nitre, two ounces.
Tincture of squills, half an ounce.
Oxymel of colchicum, half an ounce.
Syrup of buckthorn, one ounce.

Dose, a teaspoonful three times a day, in water or juniper tea.

EXTRACT OF LOGWOOD.

French. Extrait de bois de Campèche.
German. Campecheholz-Extrakt.
Italian. Estratto di paulo de Campèche.

Is considered a good astringent in the treatment of diarrhoea.
It should be given in solution, in the following manner:—


INSPISSATED OX-GALL.

71

Take of
Extract of logwood, one scruple.
Chalk mixture, ten drachms.
Tincture of cardamoms, one drachm.

Mix, and make a draught.

EXTRACT OF MALE FERN.

OIL OF MALE FERN.

Anthelmintic. An excellent remedy for tapeworm. Dose,
tweDty to thirty minims, in milk, or gum arabic emulsion, it
should be given on an empty stomach.

INSPISSATED OX-GALL.

French. Extrait de fiel de Boeuf.

German. Eingedickte Ochsengalle.

Italian. Estratto fiele di Bue.
The inspissated ox-gall is endowed with most decided tonic pro-
perties. It has been successfully prescribed, especially by Dr.
Charles Clay, in the treatment of various diseases, particularly
those in connection- with derangements of the digestive function
—deficiency or vitiated secretions of bile, habitual constipation,
chronic diarrhoea, indigestion, and other results of sedentary
confinement. The inspissated ox-gall has the peculiar property
of preventing milk from becoming sour, or undergoing decom-
position. When made into pills, they should not be rolled in
magnesia, but wheat flour, as, from experiments made, a chemical
action takes place between the gall and magnesia, producing
fermentation, totally altering its character.

STOMACHIC APERIENT PILLS.

Take of
Extract of gall,

Extract of gentian, of each sixteen grains.
Scammony, eight grains.

Mix, and divide into eight pills.
Dose, one or two at bedtime.


72

GENTIAN ROOT.

EXTRACT OF POPPIES.

French. Extrait de Pavot.
This extract has the leading characters of opium, but in a
milder degree ; and it may often be given with advantage in cases
where opium would be likely to disagree. The average dose for
adults is from five to ten grains.

GALLS.

French. Noix de Galle.

German. Gallapfel.

Italian. Galla.
Not much used internally, though they are said to be beneficial
in the cure of agues. Externally, they are applied with advantage,
in the form of lotion and ointment, to piles.

Take of
Powdered galls, one drachm.
Prepared lard, five drachms.

Mix, and make an ointment.

To be applied morning and evening to the parts affected, in
cases of blind piles; to this, one drachm of opium, or camphor,
may be added, if required.

A fomentation, made by macerating half an ounce of bruised
galls in a quart of boiling water for an hour, has been found useful
in prolapsus ani, the piles, and fluor albus, being applied cold.
The camphorated ointment of galls has also been found very
useful in this complaint, after the use of leeches \ it is made by
mixing half a drachm of camphor with one ounce of hog's lard,
and adding two drachms of galls in very fine powder.

GENTIAN ROOT.
French. Racine de Gentiane.
German. Bitterwurzel.
Italian. Genziana.
This root grows in great abundance in the Alps of Switzerland
and Austria, the Apennines and Pyrenees, on the mountains of


GINGER, JAMAICA.

73

Burgundy, and in North America. Fabulous history carries the
discovery of the medicinal properties of gentian to high antiquity,
assigning it to Gentius, King of Illyria, who lived 167 years before
the Christian era, and after whom the plant is named. It for-
merly had a high character as a gouty medicine, and formed a
large portion of the celebrated Portland powder. It is particu-
larly applicable in such diseases as require the combination of
bitters and chalybeates, as scrofula, amenorrhea, worms, &c.
In dyspepsia, attended by acidity, the following draught may
be taken twice a day; namely, at noon, and an hour before
dinner : —

Take of

Carbonate of magnesia, one scruple.

Compound infusion of gentian, eleven drachms.

Compound tincture of cardamoms, one drachm.
Mix.

Where dyspepsia is attended by nausea, and consequent aver-
sion to food, the following is found serviceable :—

Take of
Compound infusion of roses,

Compound infusion of gentian, of each seven drachms.
Compound tincture of gentian, one drachm.
Diluted sulphuric acid, twenty minims.
Mix.

Make a draught, to be taken three times a day. If the bowels
are costive, a drachm of Epsom salts may be added.

GINGEK, JAMAICA.

French. Racine de Gingembre.
German. Ingwer.
Italian. Zenzero.

The ginger plant is a native of the mountains of Gingi, in
Hindostan, whence its name is derived. It was carried from

E


M

GLYCERINE.

India to the West Indies, where the greater part of the ginger
used in Europe is cultivated. In the form of powder, ginger
has been much extolled as a remedy for gout, indigestion, and
flatulence, in the dose of twenty grains to a teaspoonful in any
common vehicle. A weak infusion of ginger, commonly called
ginger-tea, is an excellent beverage for persons of dyspeptic and
gouty habits. Combined with rhubarb, it forms a good stomachic
pill, especially in those cases where flatulency comes on before
meals, and when the stomach is nearly empty. (See Essence of
(ringer.
)

GLYCERINE.

This is an oily-looking, almost colourless fluid, which has lately
come very much into use as a therapeutic agent. It was first
proposed by Mr. Startin, of London, as an external application in
the treatment of cutaneous diseases. He used it principally in
eruptions of the scalp, psoriasis, &c. Its medicinal effects seem to
depend on its property of keeping the parts to which it is applied
continuously moist; it thus allays irritation, and prevents the
too rapid drying of the skin, which is apt to attend the use of
alkaline washes. It is used in some cases of deafness arising from
a deficient secretion of wax, by moistening a piece of cotton wool
with it.

The following formula? have been employed by Mr. Startin, at
the Hospital for Diseases of the Skin, with very great success :—

For superficial burns, scalds, or excoriations, tetters of the lips,
nose, &c, after colds.—Take of gum tragacanth half an ounce,
pure glycerine one ounce, lime-water two ounces, double rose-
water enough to form a soft jelly; to be used by way of ointment
or embrocation.

For chapped hands or nipples, fissures of the lips, irritation of
the skin of any kind, as after shaving or exposure to the sun, or
for roughness, scurf, or dandriff, on any part of the skin.—Take
of borax half a drachm ; pure glycerine half an ounce ; rose, elder,
or orange-flower-water half a pint ; to be used as a lotion, with
soft sponge or linen, to dab the affected parts.

For baldness following fevers, or other severe illness, or for fall-


Gregory's powder.

75

ing off of the hair from dryness and want of action ia the scalp.—
Take of strong spirits of sal-volatile one ounce, tincture of can-
tharides two drachms, rosemary-water half a pint, and pure
glycerine half an ounce; to be used with a sponge or wetted
hairbrush twice a day.

For rheumatism, gout, bruises, sprains, stiffness, chilblains,
&c.—Take equal parts of pure glycerine and camphorated oil, or
opodeldoc, or chloroform, and use as an embrocation to the affected
parts. Internally, it is demulcent and nutrient. It has been
recommended as a substitute for cod-liver oil, but with very little
benefit. Pure glycerine should have scarcely any smell, and only
a sweet mawkish taste.

GOULARD'S EXTRACT.

French. Extrait de Saturne.

Used externally as a cooling and astringent application to in-
flamed surfaces, burns, and old ulcers ; and, if diluted in the
proportion of ten drops to half a pint of pure water, with twenty
drops of laudanum, it will be found serviceable as an eye-water in
purulent ophthalmia.

GOULARD "WATER.
French. Eau de Goulard.

Is made by adding a small teaspoonful of the extract of Gou-
lard, with one of rectified spirits of wine, to a pint of distilled
water. This is one of the best immediate applications for burns
and inflammations ; but it should not be used to excoriated parts,
or to burns when the skin is broken.

KB.—Goulard's Extract and Water are only used externally ;
they are poisonous if taken internally.

GREGORY'S POWDER.

An excellent stomachic, antacid, and mild aperient, and may
be taken by both adults and children with great advantage.—

e 2


n

GUM AMMONIACUM.

Dose, from twenty grains to half a drachm, either in simple
water or with a few drops of sal-volatile, which will increase its
stimulant properties.

GUM ARABIC.

French. Gomme Arabique.
German. Arabischen Gummi.
Italian. Gomma Arabica.

Among the demulcent substances, gum arabic is the most fre-
quently used in the practice of medicine. It is sometimes given
alone, to relieve tickling coughs, by allowing it to dissolve slowly
in the mouth. A solution of this gum, in the proportion of one
ounce to a pint of barley-water, taken to the extent of a wine-
glassful, furnishes an excellent beverage in cases of inflammation
of the kidneys and bladder, and in the inflammatory stage of
gonorrhoea. From its light and supposed digestible nature, it is
considered a wholesome and nutritious food, thousands of the
Moors supporting themselves entirely upon it during the time
of harvest. Hasselquist mentions in his Voyages that a large
caravan of Abyssinians would have starved if they had not
discovered a stock of gum arabic among their merchandise, on
which alone a thousand persons subsisted for two months. About
six ounces of this gum are sufficient to support a man for a day :
it is mixed occasionally with milk, animal broths, and other
victuals.

Gum-water forms, for infants, a preferable drink to barley-
water, not giving rise to flatulency. This tendency of barley-
water, however, may be overcome by sweetening it with barley-
sugar.
—(See Demulcents.)

GUM AMMONIACUM.

French. Gomme Ammoniaque.
German. Ammoniak.
Italian. Gomma Ammoniaco.

This gum has been used medicinally from the time of Hippo-


GUM GALBANUM.

77

crates. It is expectorant and anti-spasmodic, and given in doses
of from five to twenty grains, in pills. In the coughs to which
aged persons are sometimes subject, unattended by inflammatory
action, and characterised by the secretion of viscid mucus in the
bronchiae or windpipe, with difficult expectoration, ten grains of
ammoniacum, three times a day, have proved of service in allay-
ing spasm, and facilitating the evacuation of the mucous matter.
The ammoniacal mixture is also used in doses of from half an
ounce to an ounce in cases of this kind ; and in females, where it
is desired to increase the activity of the uterine system, as well as
to fulfil the other above-mentioned indications, a draught, com-
posed of six drachms of the ammoniacal mixture, with the same
quantity of pennyroyal-water, may not be improperly admini-
stered.

Take of

Gum ammoniacum, one drachm.

Blue pill, fifteen grains.

Dried squills, six grains.

Syrup sufficient to make sixteen pills.

One to be taken three times a day in asthmatic cough.

Take of
Ammoniacum emulsion, six ounces.
Oxymel of squills,

Compound tincture of camphor, of each half an ounce.
Mix.

Dose, two tablespoonfuls occasionally in asthmatic cough.

GUM GALBANUM.

French. Galbanum.
German. Mutterharz.
Italian. Galbano.

As an expectorant, galbanum is supposed to possess properties
closely resembling those of assafcetida ; and it is given in com-
bination with ipecacuanha and any narcotic, two or three times
a day.


78                                                    GUM KINO.

GUM GAMBOGE.

French, Gomme Gutte.
German. Gommigutt.
Italian. Gomma gotta.
As a medicine, it is a powerful drastic cathartic, exciting
vomiting when given alone, even in moderate doses. It is
usually combined with calomel, soap, or rhubarb, to obtain its
aid as a purgative, in doses of from two to six grains; and with
squills, sal-polychrest, elaterium, cream of tartar, jalap, and nitre,
for hydragogue purposes. It has sometimes been given for the
expulsion of the tape-worm.
Take of
Gamboge, six grains.
Soap, one drachm.
Calomel, twelve grains.

Syrup of buckthorn, sufficient to make twenty-four pills.
Dose, two or three occasionally.

GUM KINO.

French. Gomme Kìdo.

German. Kinoharz.

Italian. China. •
This gum was introduced into practice by Dr. Fothergill. It
is a valuable astringent in diarrhoeas, which are kept up rather by
general relaxation of the intestinal canal than by irrritation of the
mucous membrane. The dose, in substance, is from ten grains to
one drachm. Kino is also used for gargles, in relaxation of the
uvula, and as a dentifrice, in combination with charcoal, in a
spongy state of the gums.

ASTRINGENT ELECTUARY.

Take of
Powdered kino, six drachms.
Powdered alum,

Powdered cinnamon, of each two drachms.
Syrup, a sufficient quantity to form an electuary.
Dose, a dessert-spoonful occasionally for diarrhoea.


GUM MASTICH.

7*>

GUM GUAIACUM.

French. Gayac.

German. Guajakgummi.

Italian. Guajaco.
Has long been esteemed a valuable remedy in chronic rheu-
matism, conjoined with diaphoretics and stimulants. The average
dose is fifteen grains, three times a day, mixed with nitre, or, if
necessary, with antimonials and opiates. It is best given sus-
pended by mucilage of gum a^abic, in the form of a draught, or
as an electuary with honey. The following are formulae for the
exhibition of guaiacum :—

THE DRAUGHT.

Take of
Gum guaiacum, in powder, fifteen grains.
Mucilage of gum arabic, one drachm.
Rub these well together, then add
Powdered nitre, five grains.
Cinnamon-water, ten drachms.
Mix, and make a draught.

THE ELECTUARY.

Take of
Gum guaiacum, in powder, two drachms.
Powdered nitre, one drachm.
Washed sulphur, half an ounce.
Powdered ginger, one drachm.
Fine honey, two ounces.

Mix, and make an electuary.
One teaspoonful may be taken four times a day.

GUM MASTICH.

French. Mastic.
German. Mastix.
Italian. Mastice.
Is a resinous and aromatic concretion, which is much used to


80

GUM MYRRH.

fill the cavities of decayed teeth. It is chiefly employed in making
varnishes. The Turkish and Armenian women use it as a masti-
catory for cleaning the teeth, emulging the salivary glands, and
imparting an agreeable odour to the breath. The compound
tincture of mastich, mixed with a little water, forms a very
pleasant and useful wash for the mouth.

G-XJM MYEEH.

French. Myrrhe.
German. Myrrhengummi.
Italian. Mirra.

Is tonic and expectorant. In moderate doses it stimulates the
stomach, promoting the appetite and digestion ; but in larger
doses it increases the frequency of the pulse, and augments the
general heat of the body. In union with expectorants, myrrh is
often resorted to in asthmatic and catarrhal affections, and in cer-
tain stages of consumption, when the debility from expectoration
is considerable, and where it is not rendered inadmissible by
marked febril or inflammatory symptoms. As a tonic, it often
proves beneficial in green sickness, and defective excretion of the
menstrual discharge, particularly in pale, leucophlegmatic, languid
girls. The dose of myrrh in substance is from ten grains to one
scruple, either in pills, or triturated with any aromatic water, in
the form of draught. Myrrh also enters into the composition of
many dentifrices.

Take of
Powdered myrrh, one drachm and a half.
Powdered squills, half a drachm.
Extract of henbane, two scruples.

Mix, and make thirty pills.

Two of these pills may be taken night and morning, in cases of
chronic catarrh.


GUM SCAMMONY.

SI

Take of
Peroxide of iron, half a drachm.
Powdered myrrh, one scruple.
Extract of aloes, one scruple.
Powdered rhubarb, six grains.
Syrup of ginger, sufficient to make eighteen pills.

Two or three to be taken twice a day, to open the bowels in a
suppression of the menses.

GUM SCAMMOKTT.

French. Scammonèe.

German. Scammonien.

Italian. Scamonea.                        &

la an efficacious and a powerful cathartic, very eligible in worm
cases, and in the disordered state of bowels which so commonly
occurs in children. It is generally combined with other purga-
tives, as calomel, colocynth, and aloes, conjoined with a drop or
two of oil of cloves or peppermint. The dose is from five to
fifteen grains.

Scammony, though so liable to disagree, is often required in
the treatment of children, when the bowels are difficult to move,
or loaded with mucus, which prevents the action of other purga-
tives, but which scammony in particular seems to possess the
power of removing; hence its utility in obstinate constipation,
the removal of worms, &c., &c. The following are good forms for
administering scammony to children :—

SCAMMONY WITH CHALK.

Take of
Scammony, half a drachm.
Prepared chalk, fifteen grains.
Cinnamon powder, five grains.

Mix.—Dose, two to five grains.

e 3


82

GUM SCAMMONY.

SCAMMONY WITH RHUBARB.

Take of
Powdered rhubarb,
Powdered scammony,
Sal-polychrest, of each ten grains.

Rub these well together, then add
Cinnamon powder, five grains,

Mix. —Dose, three to six grains.

THE HUILE PURGATIVE

of Swediaur is a mild yet active form of giving scammony, and is
conveniently administered to children, as follows :—

Take of
Scammony, one scruple.
" Oil of almonds, one ounce.

Mix the scammony well with the oil, by means of a gentle
heat, then add mucilage of gum arabic, one ounce.

Dose, one to two teaspoonfuls.

SCAMMONY BISCUITS.

Scammony resin, in fine powder, one drachm.
Castile soap, five grains.
White sugar, two scruples.

lleduce to a fine powder, and mix intimately with one ounce of
powdered biscuit; make into a stiff paste with a few drops of
water ; divide into tablets of one drachm each, and dry in the
air. Each tablet contains six grains of scammony.

Take of
Socotrine aloes, one scruple.
Powdered scammony, twelve grains.
Extract of rhubarb, two scruples.
Powdered capsicum, six grains.
Oil of cloves, five minims.

Mix, and divide into sixteen pills.

Dose, one or two at bedtime.


HOPS.

83

GUM TRAGACANTH.

French. G-omme Adragant.

German. Tragant.

Italian. Draganti.
As an article of the Materia Medica, its virtues resemble those
of gum arabic, to which it is sometimes preferred, forming a more
tenacious mucilage. One drachm of tragacanth will thicken a
pint of water as much as one ounce of gum arabic.

HONEY.

French. Miel.
German. Honig.
Italian. Miele.

Is produced by several kinds of bees, but most abundantly by
the Apis mellifica, the history of which is one of great interest.
It is undoubtedly laxative, but it is apt to gripe and prove flatu-
lent, when given in quantity sufficient to move the intestines ;
and the older the honey, the more liilely these effects are to be
produced : it is, therefore, seldom employed in this country for
purgative purposes. When mixed with vinegar, it forms oxymel,
and is used in various forms in medicine and pharmacy. It is
much recommended to the asthmatic, and those subject to gravel
complaints, from its detergent nature. Founded upon the popular
opinion of honey being a pectoral remedy, Dr. Hill's balsam of
honey was once in great demand ; but this nostrum, besides honey,
contained balsam of Tolu and gum Benjamin in solution.

HOPS.

French. Houblon.

German. Hopfen.

Italian. Luppolo.
The hop is a native of England. It has hitherto chiefly
attracted attention as an article of commerce, from its im-
portance as an ingredient in malt liquors. But it is also


84                                         IODIDE OF POTASSIUM.

possessed of such medicinal properties as to entitle it to a
place in the Materia Medica. The flowers of the plant, which
only are used, are aromatic, bitter, astringent, and decidedly
tonic and anodyne. Of the bitters, there is scarcely one more
agreeable to an enfeebled stomach than the hop, and hence it
is advantageously prescribed in dyspepsia, particularly where it
proceeds from intemperance ; yet it is, perhaps, as a narcotic
that it has the highest claims. As an anodyne, it may be sub-
stituted for opium, where the latter, from certain causes, does
not suit the case. The hop has also been found serviceable in
spasmodic uneasiness of the uterus, either before or subsequent
to delivery. It likewise possesses the power of procuring sleep
in the delirium of fever, and in mania, when used as a pillow;
and owing to this effect having been confirmed in the case of the
late king, George III., its efficacy, as a general narcotic, when
introduced into the stomach, fyas been investigated. Dr. Maton
observed, that, besides allaying pain and producing sleep, the
preparations of hops reduce the frequency, and increase the firm-
ness of the pulse in a very direct manner. One drachm of the
tincture and four grains of the extract, given once in six hours,
reduced the pulsations from ninety-six to sixty in twenty-four
hours. He found the extract exceedingly efficacious in allay-
ing the pain of articular rheumatism. Hops may be given in
the form of powder, infusion, tincture, or extract. The dose
of the powder is from three grains to one scruple; that of the
infusion, which is made with half an ounce of the hops and one
pint of boiling water, is from two to three wine-glassfuls three
times a da v.

IODIDE OF POTASSIUM.

POTASSII IODIDUM.

French. Iodure de Potassium.

German. Jodkalium.

This salt exists in most of the fuci, in sponges, and in certain

mineral waters. It is exhibited in the same cases as iodine, and

possesses all the properties of [that body; but being less active,

is less likely to disagree with the stomach. It may be employed


IRISH MOSS.                                             85

either internally or externally; internally it is given in the form
of solution, thus: —

Iodide of potassium, half a drachm.
Distilled water, one ounce.

Mix.—Ten to twenty drops may be taken three times a day.
It is also advantageously administered in sarsaparilla, in the
following manner:—

Concentrated essence of sarsaparilla, three ounces.
Iodide of potassium, two scruples.
Liquor of potash, one drachm and a half.

Mix.—Dose, a dessert-spoonful in a quarter of a pint of water.

In these forms iodide of potassium has been found serviceable
in scrofulous and cancerous affections, chronic rheumatism, and
secondary syphilitic symptoms. Externally it has been employed
in the form of ointment, in the treatment of enlarged scrofulous
glands, which are to be rubbed with it night and morning, the
ointment consisting of one drachm of the iodide of potassium to
one ounce and a half of lard, and half a drachm being rubbed in
each time.

In psoriasis of the hands, Mr. C. Hogg recommends the follow-
ing mixture :—

Concentrated decoction of sarsaparilla, two ounces.
Liquor of potash, three drachms.
Iodide of potassium, two scruples.
Infusion of cheretta, ten ounces.

Mix, and take two tablespoonfuls three times a day.—See
Iodine.

Dose, from three to ten grains. As much as one and even two
drachms have been given for a dose, but this requires the advice
of a medical practitioner.

IRISH MOSS.

See Carrageen.


86

INFUSIONS, CONCENTRATED.

ICELAND MOSS.

French. Lichen d'lslande.
German. Isleendisches Moos.
Italian. Lichene Islandico.

The medical virtues of this lichen were probably first learned
from the Icelanders, who employ it in its fresh state as a laxative;
but when deprived of this quality, and properly prepared, we are
told that it is an efficacious remedy in consumption, coughs,
dysenteries, and diarrhoeas. Sir Alexander Crichton states, that
during seven months' residence at Vienna, he had frequent oppor-
tunities of seeing the Iceland moss tried in consumption at the
general hospitals: its good effects, he says, consist in improving
the matter to be expectorated; in diminishing the frequency of
the cough, and rendering it more easy ; in calming the irritability
of the patient, and in preventing or moderating hectic fever.
It is commonly given in the form of a decoction, an ounce and
a half of the moss, well picked and washed, being boiled in two
pints of milk or water, until only one pint remains, which may be
sweetened with honey, when strained; of this a teacupful may be
taken frequently during the day. In making the decoction, care
should be taken that it be boiled over a slow fire, and not longer
than a quarter of an hour. The Iceland moss jelly and paste are
very pleasant forms for taking this moss, and answer every pur-
pose of the decoction. Combined with chocolate, it will be found
a nutritious article of diet, and may be taken as a morning and
evening beverage.

INFUSIONS, CONCENTRATED,

OP CLOVES, CALUMBO, CASCAEJLLA, CHAMOMILE, GENTIAN, ORANGE-
PEEL, QUASSIA, RHUBARB, ROSES, SENNA, &C.

The trouble and delay occasioned in preparing infusions render
the above preparations of the highest importance. They not only
contain, without the slightest deterioration, the virtues of the
drugs employed, but allow large doses to be given in a small bulk.
These preparations are therefore extremely convenient, and well
adapted for medicine chests. When diluted in the proportion of


IODINE.                                                 87

one drachm to seven drachms of water, they immediately form
the infusion, as directed by the British Pharmacopoeia.

IODINE.

French. Iodine.
German. Iod.
Italian. Iodina.

Iodine and its compounds have been used, both internally and
externally, for the treatment of glandular swellings, especially
bronchocele or goitre, scrofula, rickets, and spinal distortion ;
paralysis, chlorosis or green sickness, sciatica, acute and chronic
rheumatism, phthisis, and various skin diseases. In bronchocele
it is given internally, and is also applied externally upon the
tumour; and in this disease it has proved more successful than
any other remedy which has ever been used. Combined with
small doses of mercury, it has been very successful in chronic
enlargements of the liver. The tincture of iodine is also applied
to enlarged tonsils, by means of a camel hair brush. As an out-
ward application,
iodine has been most extensively employed
in chronic and skin diseases, chilblains, burns, &c, and over-
enlarged and indurated parts and diseased joints ; for this purpose
it may be applied in the form of ointment, liniment, or tincture.
To produce a speedy vesicant, the liniment should be cautiously
painted over the part two or three times, according to circum-
stances.

Ten or fifteen drops of the tincture of iodine, put into an inhaler
containing half a pint of warm water, will be found very bene-
ficial in some forms of chronic bronchitis and phthisis. Great
caution is requisite in the employment of iodine and its com-
pounds, as they are liable to produce serious derangement of the
nervous system, even when it is displaying little apparent influ-
ence in other respects. The dose of iodine is from a quarter of a
grain to a grain; but the best form for administration is the
tincture, largely diluted with water. The syrup of the iodide of
iron and of iodide of iron and quinine are excellent preparations
for the administration of iodine, and being very palatable, are


IPECACUANHA.

well adapted for the nursery and family use.—See Iodide of
Potassium and Tincture and Compound Solution of Iodine.

IODINE, COMPOUND SOLUTION OF (LUGOL'S).

Distilled water, one ounce; iodine, two grains and a half;
iodide of potassium, five grains. Mix. This preparation has
been successfully prescribed by Lugol, in glandular enlargements,
which occur so frequently in young children. One or two drops,
increased to five, according to their age, may be given in the
compound essence of sarsaparilla two or three times a day.

IPECACUANHA.

French. Ipecacuanha.

German. Brechwurzel.

Italian. Ipecacuana.
Is unquestionably the most valuable and the safest of the vege-
table emetics, evacuating the stomach certainly and completely,
without any material consequent debility, and being milder^and
safer in its operation than the generality of such medicines ; and
having this peculiar advantage, that if it does not operate by
vomit, it discharges itself by the usual evacuations. For this
purpose the dose is from fifteen to thirty grains of the powdered
root, in about an ounce of any aromatic water. In ten or fifteen
minutes it nauseates ; and when the stomach begins to be con-
vulsed, and not before, draughts of warm water or chamomile -
tea should be swallowed, to promote its operation. In the form
of decoction (made by boiling three drachms of the bruised root
in a quart of water down to a pint) it has been found seviceable
as an enema in dysentery and internal piles. In certain forms of
dyspepsia it proves highly beneficial, when administered, as pro-
posed by Daubenton, in doses just sufficient to excite a slight
sensation of vermicular motion of the stomach, without carrying
it to the point of nausea, which may be generally effected by half
a grain three times a day. In doses of a quarter of a grain to a
grain, every three or four hours, it proves diaphoretic and expec-


IRON, AMMONIO-CITRATE OF.                                   89

torant j and, in the latter sense, is a valuable remedy in inflam-
matory catarrhal affections, more especially of children, to whom
the wine of ipecacuanha may be given in doses of from five to
twenty drops. If an emetic be taken in the early stage of con-
tinued fevers, it will frequently cut short the disease; and it is
also frequently found to stop the paroxysm of an intermittent,
when given immediately before the accession of the cold stage.

Ipecacuanha may be given as an emetic to the youngest infant,
in doses of half a grain or a grain, blended with a little sugar, and
repeated every quarter of an hour until it vomits. After a year
old, these doses may be doubled, and repeated at shorter intervals.
On the Continent, a syrup of ipecacuanha (containing sixteen
grains to the ounce) is used in the same manner as we use ipe-
cacuanha wine. Ipecacuanha, combined with other expectorants, in
the form of a lozenge, is particularly efficacious in colds, coughs,
asthmas, hooping-cough, and other affections of the chest.

IRON, REDUCED.

EERRUM REDACTUM. BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA.

Iron was early introduced into the practice of physic. It
seems indeed to have been known even to the primitive culti-
vators of the science, and has always been regarded as one of the
metallic substances most friendly to the animal system.

Reduced iron has lately become a very favourite preparation ;
having little or no taste, and being given in small doses, it is very
convenient for administration to children. It is chiefly prescribed
for chlorosis, amenorrhcea, St, Vitus's dance, and enlargement of
the spleen, or to improve the quality of the blood, and general
tone of the system. Dose, from one to five grains, in powder
or pill, three times a day. For children, a quarter of a grain,
increased to one grain. A lozenge containing one grain of
reduced iron is a convenient form of administration.

IRON, AMMONIO-CITRATE OF.
IRON, CITRATE OF, "WITH QUININE.

These salts are the most beautiful preparations of iron, and are


90

JALAP.

much employed by the profession as remedial agents in cases
where the ferruginous preparations are indicated. The ammonio-
citrate of iron is perfectly soluble in water, and can be admi-
nistered in combination with the fixed alkalies, and several of
the vegetable infusions, or in porter, which conceals its taste,
without its own flavour being impaired. The citrate of iron and
quinine is exceedingly bitter, and is given in the form of a pill or
wine. The dose of the ammonio-citrate of iron is from five to
ten grains. Of the citrate of iron with quinine, from three to six
grains. (See Granular Effervescing Preparations.)

IKON, SACCHARINE CARBONATE OF.
German. Kohlensiiures Eisen mit Zucker.
This preparation of iron is peculiarly adapted for children and
delicate females, when the employment of a chalybeate tonic is
indicated.

Dose, five to thirty grains in the form of powder, or made into
an electuary with honey.

IRON, VALERIANATE OF.

FERRI VALERIANAS.

German. Baldriansatires Eisen,

Is a powerful tonic, possessing some anti-spasmodic properties
also. It is peculiarly adapted for St. Vitus's dance and other
nervous affections which frequently occur in debilitated females.
It has been advantageously used in epilepsy.

Dose.—As valerianate of iron is insoluble in water, it must be
given in the form of pills, the dose varying from two to four
grains, according to the effect produced.

JALAP.

French. Racine de Jalap.
German. Jalappenwurzel.
Italian. Sciarappa.
When administered in a moderate dose, it is a certain purgative,


JALAP.                                                          91

operating without griping : but in large doses it is apt to gripe,
and produce copious watery evacuations. When the bowels are
to be thoroughly evacuated, it may be united with other remedies
of the same class, as with scammony, senna, &c, in the following
manner:—

Take of

Powdered jalap, fifteen grains.

Calomel, five grains.

Divide into two powders, one to be taken as occasion may

require.

Take of
Powdered jalap, one scruple.
Infusion of senna, one ounce.
Tincture of senna, one drachm.
Syrup of ginger, one drachm.

Mix, and make a draught.

These are very useful purges for evacuating the bowels of
school-boys who have over-indulged themselves in eating.

The diuretic qualities of jalap are much increased by combining
it with cream of tartar ; and an electuary, composed as follows, is
sometimes advantageous in dropsy:—

Take of
Confection of senna, two ounces.
Powdered jalap, one drachm.
Cream of tartar, half an ounce.
Syrup of ginger, one ounce.
Mix.—Dose, a teaspoonful two or three times a day.

PURGATIVE POWDER FOR CHILDREN.

Take of
Powdered jalap, two grains.
Powdered rhubarb,
Powdered cinnamon, of each one grain.

Mix.


92

KOUSSO.

JALAP, COMPOUND POWDER OP.

Is a useful purgative in habitual costiveness : it is also very
serviceable to children with tumid bellies, in worm cases, and in
dropsy. The dose is from one to two scruples for adults.

KAMALA.

KAMEELA.

Kameela has been long used in the treatment of tape-worm. It
is given in the form of powder, from one to two drachms, suspended
in mucilage, syrup, or gruel. If the first dose should fail to
operate on the bowels it may be repeated in three or four hours,
followed by a dose of castor oil.

KOUSSO.

This drug has lately been introduced into England as an anthel-
mintic for the expulsion of worms. As a remedy for tapeworm,
it is one of the most efficient with which we are yet acquainted,
and its operation is not in general particularly disagreeable. It
sometimes occasions a feeling of sickness ; but its operation is safe
and certain, the worm being usually expelled in about twelve
hours. It is frequently necessary to give a mild purgative in
a few hours after its administration, as the kousso kills the
worms, but does not in every case expel them.

Dose and administration :—Half an ounce of the powdered
nowers are to be mixed with lukewarm water (for an adult
about ten ounces), and allowed to infuse for ten or fifteen
minutes. A little lemon-juice is then to be swallowed, and
the infusion being stirred up, the whole is taken, liquid and
powder, at two or three draughts, at short intervals, being
washed down by cold water and lemon-juice.

To promote the operation, tea (without sugar or milk) may be
taken. In three or four hours, if the remedy has not operated, a
saline purgative or a dose of castor oil should be administered.


KREOSOTE, OR CREASOTE.

93

The kousso should be taken in the morning fasting. The only
preparation necessary is, that all solid food should be abstained
from for twelve hours ; and a saline purgative, or a dose of castor
oil, administered the previous evening.

KREOSOTE, OR CREASOTE.

French. Crèsote.
German. Kreosot.

This substance, discovered by M. Reichenbach, has been em-
ployed with success, both internally and externally, as a remedy
for numerous diseases, particularly in obstinate cutaneoas affec-
tions, recent wounds, ringworm, &c, and by inhaling in chronic
diseases of the bronchiae and lungs. It is similar to carbolic acid,
which is now used in preference. The following are the direc-
tions for its use :—

INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION.

In affections of the bronchise and lungs, it may be most advan-
tageously applied by inhalation; for which purpose pour into an
inhaler (capable of containing a quart) a pint and a half of water,
at the temperature of 150°, adding to it thirty or forty drops
of the pure creasote ; mix by agitation, and inhale the vapour
through a tube.

In diabetes, spitting of blood, and catarrhal affections, creasote
may be given in doses of from two to six drops, three or four
times a day, mixed with water, or in the form of pills. It is par-
ticularly useful in the morning sickness of pregnancy, and in cases
of hysteric vomiting. In the obstinate vomiting of sea-sickness,
it has also been found beneficial, given in small doses on a lump
of sugar.

CREASOTE MIXTURE.

Creasote and acetic acid, of each sixteen minims, compound
spirit of juniper and syrup of orange-peel, of each one ounce,
orange-flower-water fourteen ounces ; mix the creasote with the
acetic acid, then add gradually the water, and lastly the syrup


94

LAUDANUM.

and spirit. This is an excellent form for the administration of
creasote.

Dose, from one to two ounces. Each ounce contains one minim
of creasote.

EXTERNAL APPLICATION.

Creasote may be employed externally in three different forms,
either pure, mixed with water, or united with white cerate, as an
ointment. One drachm of creasote, mixed with one pint of water,
forms a lotion, which may be applied freely to recent burns or
scalds, to chafed hands, and as a wash for unhealthy ulcers; it
may also be applied undiluted to such parts as may require it,
in the manner of a caustic. As an ointment, the usual proportion
is thirty to forty drops to the ounce; in many cases it may be
employed much stronger.

In toothache, a drop introduced into the cavity, previously
dried with a bit of cotton, will in most cases give immediate
relief.

The employment of this substance in ringworm, and similar
diseases of the skin, has been attended with much advantage.
The strength must be regulated by the state of the eruption.

LAUDANUM.

French. Teinture d'Opium.
German. Opium Tinktur.

This is an extremely convenient preparation of opium. Four-
teen and a half minims contain one grain of powdered opium.
When judiciously administered, it is one of the most valuable
medicines we possess; it removes or abates pain, wherever
situated ; lessens irritation, and seldom fails to occasion a calmness
and quietude in the system. In spasmodic colic, it will often pre-
vent inflammation of the bowels ; and in all spasmodic affections it
is more or less employed. The usual dose of laudanum is from
five to forty drops. Two drachms of laudanum, mixed with two
tablespoonfuls of olive, almond, or camphorated oil, will form an
excellent liniment for rubbing parts attacked with pains or
spasms; and, when applied to the pit of the stomach, it fre-


LEECHES.

95

quently stops violent and continued vomiting. A few drops of
laudanum and oil of cloves applied to decayed teeth frequently
afford instantaneous relief. Great precaution is required in
giving laudanum to children; and the best and safest form
for exhibiting opium to the young infant is in the following
formula :—

Take of

Distilled water, one ounce.

Mucilage of gum arabic, half an ounce.

Simple syrup, half an ounce.

Laudanum, one drop.

Mix. —Dose, a teaspoonful.

For further particulars respecting this article, see Opium.

LEECHES.

French. Sangsues.

German. Blutigel.

Italian. Mignatta.
There are several species, principally distinguished by their
colour; but that most known to medical men is the hirudo medici-
nalis,
or medicinal leech, which is the only kind used in medicine,
being applied to the skin, in order to draw off blood. With this
view they are employed for young children, and in cases of inflam-
mation, vascular fulness, or pain. They may be used in every
case where topical bleedings are thought necessary, or where
venesection cannot be performed. In inflammation of the eye,
originating from cold or accident, it is-advisable to apply three or
four leeches round the orbit. If appied to the temples, in head-
ache arising from determination of blood, they will always be
found to be safe, and generally a successful remedy. Some
circumstances connected with the application of leeches require
particular notice. An erysipelatous inflammation sometimes fol-
lows their application, which has been referred to a peculiar
irritable state of the skin of the patient.

Various means have been suggested to facilitate the application
of leeches ; the best is to make the part clean and dry, and also to


96

LENITIVE ELECTUARY.

dry the leeches in a clean cloth ; or, if this fail, to scratch the
surface of the skin with the point of a lancet, and to aj>ply the
leech on the spot moistened with the blood. When it is necessary
to apply a number of leeches to any particular part, they may be
put into a very small wine-glass, which may be held over them
until they are fixed. If the skin be much inflamed and hot, a
little tepid water should be poured into the water contaiuing the
leeches, before they are taken out of it to be applied. If sulphur
be taken internally, or if it be externally applied, leeches will not
bite ; neither will they bite if tobacco smoke, or vinegar in vapour,
be diffused through the apartment, or any accumulation of the
matter of perspiration be upon the skin of the patient. When
leeches are applied to soft parts—for instance, to the abdomen—
it is truly astonishing how much blood sometimes is abstracted ;
particularly when a poultice is applied over the bites, and the
patient is kept warm in bed t to prevent, therefore, injurious
symptoms of exhaustion from such a circumstance, the poultice
should be frequently examined. The result is more likely to occur
in children than in adults; and in children it not unfrequently
happens that the bleeding cannot be stopped without the applica-
tion of some powerful styptic or caustic. On this account leeches
should, if possible, never be applied late at night on children.
Leeches are sometimes so full of blood, that the patient might
reasonably imagine they have been used before; but this depends
upon the method of taking them, which is by liver being thrown
into the ponds where they are caught, for them to attach them-
selves to : they also suck one another. They are nevertheless too
frequently sold after being used, but this rarely ever occurs in
respectable establishments.

LENITIVE ELECTUARY.

French. Electuaire de Sene\
German. Sennesbliitter Latwerge.

This is a mild and pleasant aperient, and well adapted for .
pregnant women, and those who are afflicted with habitual cos-


LINSEED.

97

tiveness, piles, &c. It may be given to the extent of a teaspoonful
occasionally. Children will sometimes be induced to take this
electuary as a purgative, whilst they will resist all other kinds of
mediciue.

Take of

Lenitive electuary, one ounce and a half.

Milk of sulphur, half an ounce.

Syrup of roses, sufficient quantity to form an electuary.

One or two teaspoonfuls of this electuary may be given as a
laxative in piles, and other affections of the lower intestines
attended with costiveness.

LINSEED.

French. Grains de Lin.
German. Leinsamen.
Italian. Simi di Lino.

Linseed yields, by expression only, a large proportion of oil,
which is an excellent pectoral, as is likewise the mucilaginous
infusion. The oil is of a healing balsamic nature, and very useful
in coughs attended with spitting of blood, in colics, and obsti-
nate costiveness; being a more certain laxative than either olive
or almond oil. A tablespoonful of it taken at short intervals
gently purges ; but if it be mixed with syrup, it ceases to operate
as a laxative. Externally applied, it softens and eases pain. It
is also useful in cases of dysentery. The infusion of linseed,
made in the following manner, is a very useful beverage in cases
of inflammation of the lungs, recent coughs, the measles, gravel,
and inflammation of the bladder ::

Take of
Linseed, one ounce.
Liquorice root, two drachms.
Boiling water, two quarts.

To be macerated for six hours, stirring the mixture constantly,
in order that the mucilage of the seeds may be suspended.

F


m

liquor of potash, brasdish's.

LINSEED MEAL.

French. Farine de Lin.
German. Leinmehl.
Is used as a poultice to soften and ripen inflammatory tumours,
and is well adapted for that purpose.

LINT.

French. Charpie.
Is a very useful article in a medicine chest, for the purpose of
dressing and cleansing sores or ulcers. When applied dry, it will
destroy fungous flesh ; and, with slight pressure, stop the bleeding
of wounds and leeches.

LIQUOB OF POTASH.

LIQUOR POTASS.E.

French. Potasse Liquide Caustique.

German. Kaustische Kalilacuge.
This solution produces its effects as an antacid, both by neu-
tralizing the existing acid and by its powerful influence in allaying
the morbid irratibility of the viscus. It is usually given in veal-
soup, mutton-broth, bitter infusions, or table-beer, which is not
sour or hard, in doses of from ten to thirty drops ; and is consi-
dered an excellent remedy for dyspepsia, cardialgia, and gravel,
arising from a superabundance of uric acid, and in scrofula and
cutaneous disorders, such as leprosy, &c., arising from acids irri-
tating the stomach and bowels. It has proved useful in some
cases of ovarian dropsy,

LIQUOR OF POTASH, BRANDISH'S.

This solution of potash was first recommended to the profession
by Mr. Brandish, surgeon to his late Eoyal Highness the Duke
of Sussex, as a valuable remedy in king's evil, indigestion, bilious


LOBELIA INFLATA.

99

complaints, red gravel, gout, heartburn, &c, &c. Mr. Brandish
also stated that he had given the solution in several cases of
spasmodic asthma, and in the habitual asthma, and chronic coughs
of aged persons, with great success. The dose is one or two tea-
spoonfuls three times a day, in water, linseed tea, or any other
agreeable vehicle.

LITHIA.

Was first introduced into medicinal use by Dr. Garrod, and is
now very frequently prescribed, principally in the treatment of
gout, and in certain conditions of the system where urate of
soda is liable to be deposited in the tissues. Effervescing lithia-
water is a very pleasant form for administering the medicine, or
the granular effervescing salt, which has the advantage of being
equally pleasant to take and much more portable.—See Granular
Effervescing Preparations.

LIVER OF SULPHUR.

French. Sulfure de Potasse.
German, Schwefelleber.
Italian. Solfuro di Potassa.

This preparation has been employed in several cutaneous dis-
eases with advantage, both internally and in the form of bath or
ointment. The dose is from five to twenty grains. It is used for
making the Barege and Harrogate Baths, for which purpose two
drachms may be dissolved in a gallon of tepid water at the time
it is required.—See Artificial Baths.

LOBELIA IZSTFLATA.

INDIAN TOBACCO.

French. Lobèlie.

Grows in a wild state in several parts of North America, and
has recently come into great repute both in that country and in

f 2


100                                 MAGNESIA, CALCINED.

England, as an expectorant, anti-spasmodic, and sudorific. Its
virtues were first made known by the Rev. Dr. Cutler, who made
use of it in his own case for the relief of asthma. He had, during
ten years, made trial of a great variety of the usual remedies for
that disease with but little benefit; he took the tincture of lobelia,
in frequently-repeated doses of a tablespoonful, till the paroxysm
abated, which he represents to have been almost immediately.
The ethereal tincture of the lobelia has been highly recommended
as very efficacious in spasmodic asthma. The dose of either tinc-
ture is from ten to twenty drops, in a little water, three or four
times repeated.

LOGWOOD.

French. Bois de Campèche.
German. Campescheholz.
Italian. Ligno de Campeggio.

Is a native of South America, growing abundantly in the
Antilles and in the Bn,y of Campeachy, whence it derives its
specific name. It is employed medicinally as an astringent and
corroborant. In diarrhoeas it has been found peculiarly efficacious,
and has the recommendation of some of the first medical autho-
rities ; also in the latter stages of dysentery. In the form of
decoction (made by boiling two ounces of the chips with two pints
of water, and reducing it to one pint) it has been beneficially
administered, in doses of a tablespoonful every three hours, for
the cholera of infants.

MAGNESIA, CALCINED.

French. Magnèsie Calcinèe.
German. Gebrannte Magnesia.
Italian. Magnesia.

In large doses, magnesia is a gentle purgative, and its employ-
ment is always followed with beneficial effects in cases of acidity
of the prim® vise, observable principally in people who use milk
habitually, or after violent paroxysms of gout. The annexed
formula is sometimes useful in this disease :—


MAGNESIA, CALCINED.

101

Take of
Magnesia, calcined, fifteen grains.
Epsom salts, one drachm.
Colchicum wine, half a drachm.
Distilled water, one ounce and a half.
Mix.
In small doses it acts no longer as a laxative; but it is fre-
quently employed in this manner as an antacid, to neutralize the
acids formed in the stomach under certain circumstances, and
especially in pregnant women and in children. Combined with
cream of tartar, rhubarb, or Epsom salts, it becomes more active.
The usual dose of magnesia is from a teaspoonful to a dessert-
spoonful, taken in a little water. The purgative effect of calcined
magnesia entirely depending on its meeting with an acid in the
stomach, it frequently happens that a small dose will operate more
on the bowels than a large one, in consequence of not meeting
with a sufficient quantity of acid to dissolve it. When, there-
fore, a full dose of magnesia does not act freely upon the bowels,
the patient should take a dessert-spoonful of lemon-juice to pro-
mote its aperient operation. When taken for acidity in the
stomach, it should be mixed with a wine-glassful of some aro-
matic water.

Twelve grains of calcined magnesia, four grains of rhubarb, and
five grains of aromatic powder (compound cinnamon powder),
mixed in peppermint-water, is a very useful medicine for persons
of gouty habits. For correcting acidity in the stomach of children,
attended with costiveness, thrush, red gum, &c, twenty grains of
calcined magnesia, five grains of rhubarb, twenty drops of sal-
volatile, and five ounces of dillseed-water, mixed together and
divided into four doses, will be found an excellent remedy; but
when attended with looseness of the bowels, or what is generally
called griping stools, chalk mixture will prove equally efficacious
in neutralizing the acidity, and at the same time will restrain
the violence of the purging. Small doses of magnesia are often
effectual in cutaneous eruptions, and especially where there is a
breaking out of pimples about the chin, nose, and forehead, which
are symptomatic of acidity in the stomach. Calcined magnesia,
in the quantity of a teaspoonful twice a day, has been much
recommended as a remedy for the red gravel, and for correcting


102

MAGNESIA, CA.LCINED.

the gouty habit; but in all cases of the continued administration
of magnesia, its tendency to lodge and accumulate in the bowels
must be prevented by the occasional use of aperients.

Calcined magnesia is also very beneficial in cases of poisoning
by acids, on account of the great facility with which they combine
with it, and of the harmlessness of the salts resulting from this
combination.

CARMINATIVE MIXTURE FOR INFANTS.

Take of
Calcined magnesia, thirty-five grains.
Powdered rhubarb, eight grains.
Powdered sugar, one drachm and a half.
Oil of aniseed, five drops.
Laudanum, four drops.
Dillseed-water, two ounces.

Mix.—One to three teaspoonfuls occasionally.

As a gentle aperient, where there is tenderness in the abdomen,
magnesia may be given in the following form :—
Take of
Powdered rhubarb, fifteen grains.
Calcined magnesia,

Aromatic confection, of each one scruple.
Peppermint-water, an ounce and a half.
Mix.

Magnesia is often given to children, being a very mild aperient,
and, from its antacid properties, peculiarly adapted for them. It
is frequently added to other purgatives ; and its combination with
manna constitutes an efficient purgative for general use.—See
Manna.

Magnesia is a favourite combination for children in the follow-
ing form:—

Powdered rhubarb, one scruple.
Calcined magnesia, two scruples.
Cinnamon powder, ten grains.

Mix.—Three or four grains of this powder may be given to a
child six months ; six or ten grains, twelve months old.


MERCURIAL PILL. (BLUE PILL.)                            103

MANNA.

French. Manne.

German. Manna.

Italian. Manna.
Is one of the mildest and safest purgatives known, and is
adapted chiefly for children and very delicate females. It is
seldom prescribed alone, but combined with senna, castor oil,
and other purgatives ; and it is used rather to cover their tastes
than to aid their cathartic properties. It may be taken in any
bland solution or milk, in doses of one to four drachms.
Mothers frequently give it to their children as an innocent pur-
gative ; but, though mild in its operation, if given alone it is
apt to produce flatulence and griping.

Take of
Manna, one ounce.
Fennel-water, three ounces.
Sal-volatile, twenty drops.
Mix.
A tablespoonful may be given every hour in infantile catarrh.
Take of
Infusion of senna, two ounces.
Dillseed-water, half an ounce.
Manna, two drachms.
Calcined magnesia, one scruple.
Tincture of rhubarb, one drachm
Syrup of roses, two drachms.
Mix.
Two or three teaspoonfuls for a dose, as a mild purgative.

MERCURIAL PILL. (BLUE PILL.)

PILULA HYDRARGYRI.

French. Pilules Mercurielles Simples.
German. Blaue Pillen.
Is a most useful medicine in diseases connected with a dimi-
nished secretion of bile, in dyspepsia, scrofula, jaundice, syphilis,


104

MORPHINE, OR MORPHIA.

and cutaneous eruptions, and is by far the best form for the
internal exhibition of mercury. When it is intended to act upon
the system as an alterative, it should be administered in doses of
from four to six grains; if it occasion any action on the bowels,
it may be conjoined with opium. In affections of the liver, such
as torpidity, or want of proper action in that organ, three or live
grains of the blue pill, either alone or mixed with a proportion of
compound extract of colocynth, may be taken once or twice
a week, at bed-time, followed by a Seidlitz powder in the
morning.

MERCURY WITH CHALK.

HYDRARGYRUM CUM CRETA.

An alterative, and is occasionally given to correct the biliary
secretion in children, and especially to increase it when deficient
in quantity. In combination with rhubarb, it is employed with
much benefit in the diarrhoea of children, when the stools are
clay-coloured, and when there is acidity of the primse vise. Given
with dried carbonate of soda, it is a most useful alterative in the
cutaneous affections of infancy and childhood. Dose, from three
to eight grains.

MORPHINE, OR MORPHIA.

French. Morphine.
German. Morphium.

Is the active principle of opium, and is doubtless one of the
most valuable alkaloids that has been discovered. The dose of
the pure alkaloid is about one-eighth to one-fourth of a grain,
given either in solution or in the form of pill; it is seldom used
in medicine, but is chiefly employed in making the acetate, the
hydrochlorate or muriate, and the sulphate
of morphia. Of these
the British Pharmacopoeia has selected the hydrochlorate as being-
more uniform in its composition. The salts of morphia are
administered in most instances to fulfil the same intentions as
opium. The dose varies from one-eighth to one-half of a grain,


MUSTARD.                                              105

but, like opium, they lose their effect by repetition, and, conse-
quently, the dose requires to be gradually increased.—See Solu-
tions of Morphia.

MUSTAED.

French. Moutarde.
German. Senfsamen.
Italian. Senapa.

Poultices made with mustard flour, crumbs of bread, and
vinegar, are frequently applied to the soles of the feet in fevers,
and may be used to advantage in fixed rheumatic and sciatic
pains. Mustard forms a useful emetic in cases of intoxication
threatening apoplexy, and in cholera ; and it is even asserted that
it has acted in such cases when other emetics have failed. In
gout; in which no irritation is more hurtful than that arising from
crude undigested matters in the stomach, a mustard emetic proves
highly useful. If the flour of mustard be genuine, a dessert-
spoonful, mixed in a sufficient quantity of water, will be found
sufficient for an adult. Notwithstanding the stimulant property
of mustard, it is astonishing how greatly the stomach resists its
action. In moderate doses as a condiment, mustard is a whole-
some excitant to the stomach in a weakened state of this organ ;
in large doses it interrupts digestion, and irritates the nervous
system.

The best form for making a mustard poultice is to mix
together equal parts of mustard and flour, a little vinegar,
and sufficient quantity of boiling water to make a soft paste;
spread this thickly upon a piece of linen rag of the required size ;
place a piece of muslin over it, and then apply it to the part
affected; allow it to remain about fifteen or twenty minutes,
until it reddens the skin without producing a blister; then
remove it; and, should the skin be very hot and burn, sprinkle
a little flour upon the part. In cases of threatening apoplexy or
paralysis, a mustard poultice applied to the nape of the neck, or
a mustard foot-bath to rouse the system, may be beneficially
employed.

v 3


106                                               NITRE.

MUSK.

French. Muse.
German. Moschus.
Italian. . Muschio.
Is esteemed one of the strongest anti-spasmodics and stimulants
we possess, and with this view has been given in doses of five
grains to one scruple in the form of pill, bolus, or mixture, along
with ether, camphor, or ammonia, for hysterical paroxysms,
epilepsy, hooping-cough, and the latter stage of low fevers.
Administered in an enema, it very frequently succeeds in calming
the convulsions of children produced by dentition.
It is extensively used as a perfume.

NITRE.

French. Nitrate de Potasse.
German. Salpeter.
Italian. Nitro.

Is refrigerant and diuretic; and, when externally applied in
solution, cooling and detergent. If taken in repeated small
• doses, it diminishes arterial action. The dose of nitre is from
five to twenty grains in an ounce and a half of some mucilaginous
fluid or almond emulsion. In inflammatory diseases, nitre may
also be combined with a variety of diaphoretic remedies, such as
the common saline draught, or with saline mixtures containing
antimony. This salt is apt to create a very unpleasant coldness,
attended often by spasm in the stomach ; and where this happens,
its use should in most cases be discontinued.

In inflammatory sore-throats, nitre is much employed as a
good detergent addition to viscid gargles, in the following
manner :—

Take of
Nitre, one drachm and a half,
Honey, two ounces.
Rose-water, six ounces.

Mix, and make a gargle, to be used frequently.


OIL OF ALMONDS.

107

On account of the great action of nitre upon the bladder
and kidneys, great caution is requisite in its employment. The
solution of powdered nitre in water is attended by a considerable
production of cold, which is increased by the addition of sal-
ammoniac. Such a solution may sometimes prove useful as an
extemporaneous refrigerant lotion where ice cannot be procured.
For this purpose, equal weights of powdered nitre and sal-ammo-
niac may be dissolved in ten or twelve parts of the coldest water
that can be obtained.

The following are some of the ordinary forms in which nitre is
administered :—

DIURETIC MIXTURE.

Take of
Xitre, one drachm.
Almond emulsion, six ounces.
Compound spirit of juniper, one ounce and a half.
Vinegar of squills, six drachms.

Mix. —Dose, a tablespoonful occasionally,

Take of
Carbonate of potash, one scruple.
Fresh lemon-juice, half an ounce.
Camphor julep, one ounce.
Nitre, ten grains.
Syrup of orange-peel, one drachm.

Mix, and make a draught.

OIL OF ALMONDS.

French. Huile d'Amandes.
German. Mandelol.
Italian. Olio di Mandorle.

This oil is demulcent and emollient, and is used for coughs
and other pulmonary complaints, united with water by means
of mucilage, or the yolk of egg and sugar. The following


108

OIL OF AMBER.

mixture will be found useful in allaying a tickling and irritating
cough :—

Take of
Oil of almonds,

Syrup of tolu, of each one ounce.
Orange-flower water, six ounces.
Liquor of subcarbonate of potash, six drops.
Mix.
A tablespoonful may be taken two or three times a day.
Externally, this oil is employed in the form of embrocation for
sore-throats, in the proportion of two parts of oil of almonds and
one of spirits of hartshorn.

ANODYNE LINIMENT.

Take of
Oil of almonds, two ounces.
Camphor, one drachm.
Laudanum, half a drachm.

Mix.

OIL OF AMBER.

French. Huile de Succin.

German. Bernsteinol.

Italian. Olio di Succini.
This oil was formerly administered as an anti-spasmodic in
hysteria, hooping-cough, and other convulsive diseases, in doses
of from five to twenty drops, diffused in aqueous fluids by means
of mucilage. Externally, it is applied as an embrocation to the
chest in hooping-cough, in the following proportions :—

Take of
Camphorated spirit, half an ounce.
Laudanum, two drachms.
Oil of amber, two drachms.
Oil of almonds, half an ounce.
Mix.
Of this compound a small quantity may be used night and
morning.


OIL OF CINNAMON.

109

OIL OF ANISEED.

French. Huile d'Anis.

German. Anisol.

Italian. Olio die Anice.
Is a stimulant and carminative; and is well adapted to the
purpose to which it is usually applied, that of relieving flatulence
and the symptoms arising from it in children, a little of it being
rubbed with sugar and mixed with the child's food. The common
proportion is ten or fifteen drops of the oi] to two ounces of sugar.
The great consumption of this oil is in the preparation of horse
medicines, to obviate the griping effects of strong purgative
medicines.

OIL OF CAEAWAY.

French. Huile de Carvi.
German. KUmmelol.
Italian. Olio di Carvi.

Same properties as the oil of aniseed.

OIL OF CINNAMON.

French. Huile de Cannelle.
German. Zimmtol.
Italian. Olio di Cannella.

A warm stimulant, and delicious stomachic. Given in the dose
of from one to three drops, rubbed down with some yolk of egg
in a little sherry wine, it allays violent emotions of the stomach
from morbid irritability. It is sometimes used locally in tooth-
ache, by being dropped upon cotton, and inserted into the hollow
of the decayed tooth.


110

OIL OF JUNIPER.

OIL OF CLOVES.

French. Huile de Girofle.
German. Nelkonol.
Italian. Olio di Garofani.

One or two drops of this oil correct the griping tendency of
carthartic pills, and sometimes appears to augment their efficacy.
It is also used as an application for toothache.

OIL OF CAJUPUT.

French. Huile de Cajeput.
German. Kajeputol.
Italian. Olio di Cajeput.

This oil, when diluted with an equal quantity of olive oil, is a
useful rubefacient in gout and rheumatism, and assists also in
restoring vigour to joints weakened by sprains. When taken
internally, it causes a glow, fills the pulse, and excites greatly
the nervous system; and, from determining to the surface and
equalizing the circulation, it was much prescribed by the late
Sir M. Tierney and others in malignant cholera, in doses of
twenty to thirty drops every two or three hours. It is some-
times applied on cotton to allay toothache.

OIL OF JUNIPER.

French. Huile de Genèvrier.
German. WachholderbeeroL
Italian. Olio di Ginepro.

This oil possesses stimulant, carminative, and stomachic virtues,
in the dose of from two to four drops, and in a larger dose proves
highly diuretic. It is often employed in the cure of dropsical
complaints, when the indication is to provoke the urinary
discharge.


OIL OP PENNYROYAL.

Ill

OIL OF LAVENDER.

French. Huile de Lavande.
German. Lavandelol.
Italian. Olio di Lavanda.

Used as a perfume. A few drops sprinkled upon a bed con-
taining bugs will generally destroy them.

OIL OF OLIVES.

French. Huile d'Olive.
German. Olivenol.
Italian. Olio d'Ulive.

With regard to the utility of oil, it in some shape forms a
considerable part of our food, both animal and vegetable, and
affords much nourishment. With some, however, oily sub-
stances do not unite with the contents of the stomach, and
are frequently brought up by eructation; this happens more
especially to those whose stomachs abound with acid. Olive
oil is frequently given for coughs and catarrhal affections; and
when rubbed over the body, is said to be serviceable in dropsies.
When olive oil is used in salads, or as a seasoning for raw vege-
tables, it seems to render them more digestible, and prevents
them from producing flatulence : but when taken in large quan-
tities it cloys the stomach, and becomes the source of dyspeptic-
affections.

OIL OF PENNYROYAL.

French. Huile de Menthe Pouliot.
German. Puleiol.
Italian. Olio di Pideggio.

Is stimulant, anti-spasmodic, and reputed to be emmenagogue.
It is given in doses of from one to five drops on a piece of sugar.


112                                   OINTMENT, CITRINE.

OIL OF PEPPERMINT.

French. Huile de Menthe Poivrèe.

German. PfeffermUnzol.

Italian. Olio di Menta Piperitide.

Is a powerful and useful stimulant. In spasmodic and flatulent
pains of the stomach and bowels, in cramp, faintuess, and nausea,
it is a useful remedy, a drop or two being taken upon a lump of
sugar, or triturated with a little powdered sugar.

OIL OF ROSEMARY.

French. Huile de Romarin.
German, Rosmarinol.
Italian. Olio di Rosmarino.

Stimulant, and is sometimes given with advantage in nervous
and spasmodic affections of the stomach. It is much used as a
perfume.

OINTMENT, BASILICON.

French. Onguent Basilicum.

German. Kbnigssalbe. Basilicumsalbe.

Italian. Cerotto Resinoso.

Is in general used as a stimulant and detergent, and therefore
forms an excellent dressing for foul and indolent ulcers.

OINTMENT, CITRINE.
French. Onguent Oitrin.
German. Gelbe Quecksilbersalbe.
Italian. Unguento Citrino.

This ointment is of very extensive utility in eruptive and
herpetic diseases, scaldhead, purulent and chronic ophthalmia,
indolent tumours on the margin of the eyelid, and scrofulous
ulcers. When intended to be used to the eyes, it should be


OINTMENT OF ZINC.                                           113

mixed with an equal quantity of hogs'-lard, and applied, pre-
viously softened, almost liquefied, upon a camel-hair pencil, on
going to bed.

OINTMENT, MERCURIAL, STRONG.

French. Pommade Mercurielle.

German. Blaue Mercurialsalbe.

Italian. Unguento Mercuriale.
Is in very general use for mercurial frictions. It may be em-
ployed in almost all cases where mercury is indicated, but it
requires the direction of a medical man.

OINTMENT, SULPHUR.

French. Pommade de Soufre.

German. Schwefelsalbe.

Italian. Unguento Solforato.
The intention of this ointment is to cure the itch, which it
generally does more certainly than any other remedy; but its
offensive smell occasions it to be used by most people with great
reluctance. Two or three inunctions are in general sufficient for
the cure, provided the patient wears his linen without changing
for a few days.

OINTMENT OF ZINC.

French. Pommade d'Oxide de Zinc.

German. Zinksalbe.

Italian. Unguento di Zinco.
Is a very useful application in chronic ophthalmia, relaxed
ulcers, sore nipples, and for removing ringworm, particularly
when it attacks the scalp.


114

OPIUM.

OPIUM.

French, Opium.
German. Opium.
Italian. Oppio.

Of all the articles of the Materia Medica, this is, perhaps, the
most extensively useful; there being scarcely one morbid affec-
tion or disordered condition of the system in which, under certain
circumstances, it is not exhibited, either alone or in combination.
It is certainly the most sovereign remedy for easing pain and
procuring sleep; but, like other powerful medicines, it becomes,
when improperly administered, highly noxious to the human
constitution, and even productive of death.

It is the chief narcotic now employed ; it acts directly upon the
nervous power, diminishing the sensibility, irritability, and mo-
bility of the system; thereby inducing sleep, one of its principal
effects. From this sedative power of opium, by wThich it allays
pains, inordinate action, and restlessness, it naturally follows
that it may be employed with great advantage in a variety of
diseases. In febrile affections, opium is useful where there are
no high inflammatory symptoms. In typhoid fevers it allays
irritability, and watchfulness, quiets many nervous symptoms,
prevents inordinate relaxation of the bowels, and tends, in com-
bination with ammoniacal stimulants and bitters, to support
the general powers of the system. In acute and chronic rheu-
matism, opium is a most important remedy; when it is so
managed as to produce sweat, it will tend to remove an inflam-
matory state of the system, and may generally prove useful;
a notable instance of this we observe in the cure of acute rheu-
matism, by means of Dover's powder. In all obstinate and irri-
tating coughs, where inflammatory action is not predominant, an
opiate at bed-time is always palliative, and often curative. In
eruptive diseases, opiates are beneficial; but they must be cau-
tiously administered, more particularly in reference to the state
of the bowels.

The requisite dose of opium varies in different persons, as well
as in different states of the same person. A quarter of a grain in
one adult will produce effects which ten times the quantity will


opium, jeremie's solution of. '                     115

not do in another. The lowest fatal dose to those unaccustomed
to it seems to be about four grains. When given in too small a
dose, it often produces disturbed sleep and other unpleasant con-
sequences ; and, on the other hand, a small dose will sometimes
produce sound sleep and alleviation of symptoms, when a larger
one would not have succeeded.

There are certain circumstances necessary to be attended to in
regard to the administration of opium; first, age may be men-
tioned as having a powerful influence in modifying its action.
The younger the individual, the more energetic is its action on
the system; hence the great caution requisite in its administra-
tion to infants ; in fact, it should never be resorted to in any
form except upon emergencies; and all opiates, especially syrup
of poppies and some nostrums containing opium, which are but
too frequently used by lazy nurses to quiet children, should be
most imperiously excluded from the list of nursery medicines.
Sex influences the operation of opium less than other circum-
stances, but still it exerts some influence ; and we find that
spasms and obstinate vomitings more frequently follow its use
in women than in men.

Opium is also well known to be more dangerous in those of a
sanguine than in those of a melancholic temperament.

Climate modifies considerably the effects of opium. In those
who pass from colder to warmer climates, smaller doses of it are
requisite to produce the desired effect than were necessary in the
climate from which they have passed.

Persons habituated to opium will frequently bear very large
doses with little effect. Many instances are recorded of the
enormous doses which have been taken with impunity by in-
dividuals who have long accustomed themselves to the use of
this narcotic. As very great caution is therefore necessary in
ascertaining the proper dose and time of administration, as well
as the symptoms to which it is applicable, the use of opium had
better be left to the decision of the experienced physician.

OPIUM, JEBEMIE'S SOLUTION OF.

The peculiar value of this preparation consists in its freedom
from the injurious effects common to most other preparations of


116

OXALATE OF CERIUM.

opium; not disturbing the nervous system, or diminishing the
secretions. On these accounts it is used freely by persons who
are unable to take opium in any of its more ordinary forms.

In gout, rheumatism, diarrhoea, cholera, influenza, and common
catarrh, to sufferers from tic, and other nervous and spasmodic
pains, this medicine proves a valuable remedy.

The ordinary dose of Jeremie's opiate for an adult may be
varied from ten to twenty minims, taken at bed-time; fifteen
minims being the average dose.

In cholera, and in spasmodic diseases of a severe nature, the
dose for an adult is from thirty to forty minims, repeated accord-
ing to the urgency of the occasion ; and for children, from one to
ten minims, according to age.

It should be noticed, that it is in " the diarrhoea which so gene-
rally precedes epidemic cholera," as stated by Sir Ranald Martin,
that the efficacy of this medicine will be found greatest; and in
this latter case the quantity of fluid taken along with the drops
should not exceed a tea or a dessert-spoonful.

OPODELDOC LIQUID.

LINIMENTUM SAPONIS.

German. Fliissiger Opodeldoc.

This is an excellent application in all common rheumatic affec-
tions, bruises, sprains, chilblains, and local pains. It is a good
addition to other liniments; mixed with tincture of cantharides,
it is rendered more effectively stimulating and rubefacient; and
with the addition of laudanum, it forms one of the best sedative
liniments.

Take of
Compound camphor liniment,
Opodeldoc, of each one ounce and a half.
Oil of cajuput, one drachm.
Mix.

OXALATE OP CEBIUM.

Tonic and sedative. Introduced by Dr. Simpson, of Edinburgh,


PAREGORIC ELIXIR.

117

as a valuable remedial agent for the relief of irritable dyspepsia,
gastrodynia pyrosis, or waterbrash, gout, epilepsy, and vomiting
during pregnancy. It does not discolour the skin like the nitrate
of silver.
Dose.—One to two grains, twice or thrice a day.

OXYMEL OF SQUILLS.
French. Oximellite Scillitique.
German. Meerzwiebelhonig,

Is principally employed as an expectorant, and is very useful
in hooping-cough, asthma, and winter coughs, in doses of from
half a drachm to two drachms. It is generally given in some
aromatic water, to prevent the nausea which it is apt to induce :
in larger doses it is employed to excite vomiting, and to clear the
chest in hooping-cough.

PANCREATINE.

The active principle of the pancreatic secretion by which the
emulsification and digestion of fat is perfected. It also possesses
an active digestive power, analogous to, but on some substances
surpassing that of the gastric juice. To Dr. Dobell belongs the
credit of having brought this substance, as well as the pancreatic
emulsion of fat, more prominently before the medical profession ;
they have been found of the greatest benefit in nourishing, the
body and sustaining the strength of patients suffering from con-
sumption and other wasting diseases ; and can be generally taken
without nausea, where cod-liver oil has been rejected.—See
Appendix on Pancreatic Emulsion and Pancreatine.

PAREGORIC ELIXIR.

TLNCTURA CAMPHORS COMPOSITA.

French. Teinture de Camphre Composèe.
Gasman. Benzoehaltige Opiumtinktur.
This preparation contains opium, and, where the chest is free


**

118                                       PEARL BARLEY.

from inflammation, it may be given in doses of a teaspoon ful in
a glass of water, or any mucilaginous drink, two or three times
a day, to allay the tickling sensation in the windpipe attendant on
recent cough. Two teaspoonfuls of paregoric elixir, one table-
spoonful of oxymel of squills, and the same quantity of water and
mucilage of gum arabic, form a good mixture for hooping-cough.
A teaspoonful may be taken three or four times a day, or when
the cough is very troublesome. At the commencement of a com-
mon cough in children the following mixture will be found of
great service, the bowels having been previously opened by a
small dose of calomel and James's powder.

. Take of

Simple syrup, two ounces.
Antimonial wine,

Paregoric elixir, of each one drachm.
Tincture of Tolu, twelve minims.
Mix.

A teaspoonful may be given three or four times a day in a little
warm linseed-tea or barley-water, when the cough is troublesome.

PAJREIRA BBAVA.
French. Racine de Pareira.
German. Brasilianische Grieswurzel.
Has been highly recommended as a lithontriptic and diuretic,
and may be used with success in cases requiring remedies of this
kind, especially in chronic catarrhs of the urinary bladder. It
is administered in powder, in the dose of one scruple to one
drachm ; and in decoction of three drachms to two pints of water ;
the latter being the best form for its administration.

PEABL BARLEY.

French. Orge Perlèe.
German. Perlgerste.
Italian. Perl d'Orzo.
Barley is one of the demulcent substances most commonly used.


PEPSINE.

119

It is exhibited in the form of decoction in almost all inflammatory
affections. The best form for making the decoction is as follows :
—Take of pearl barley, two ounces ; water, four pints and a half;
wash the barley well in cold water, then boil it for a short time
in half a pint of water ; throw away this liquid, then add the
remaining four pints of boiling water, which should be kept boil-
ing until half the quantity is evaporated. Equal parts of barley-
water and new milk, with a small portion of refined sugar or
barley-sugar, are a good substitute for the nurse's milk, when
infants are unfortunately brought up by hand.

PELLITORT OF SPAIN.

French. Racine de Pyrèthre.

German. Bertramwurtzel.

Italian. Piretro.
Is a powerful stimulant, exciting, when chewed, a copious flow
of saliva. It is sometimes used as a gargle in cases where it is
desirable to promote that secretion : it is also found very effectual
in relieving toothache, for which purpose the root may be chewed,
or the following compound tincture may be applied upon cotton to
the tooth and gum :—

Take of
Bruised Pellitory of Spain, half an ounce.
Camphor, two drachms.
Opium, one drachm.
Oil of cloves, two drachms.
Spirits of wine, six ounces.
Mix, and let this stand for ten days ; then strain for use.

The infusion of the fresh root, made by pouring one pint of
boiling water upon a quarter of an ounce of the root, and allowing
it to macerate for one hour, has been given with success in some
cases of retention of urine.

PEPSINE.

Is a medicine which has become very popular as a remedy for
indigestion, and to supply the deficiency of gastric juice in the

i


120

PILL, PLUMMER S.

stomach, tinder the name of Pepsine various preparations have
been brought forward, some of which are a mixture of the
active principle with a large proportion of starch, and are
called acid and neutral, the latter requiring the addition of a
foreign acid when administered in order to develop its properties.
Pure pepsine should be slightly acid. Where so much variety
exists, it is necessary to be very careful as to the purity of the
preparation. There is no chemical test for its purity, but an
interesting and conclusive experiment may be made by taking
some fresh fibrine and a little water, adding a small quantity of
pepsine, and keeping the whole at about 90° F., the natural tem-
perature of the body. In a short time the whole of the fibrine
should be not only disintegrated, but entirely dissolved.

PESSARIES, MEDICATED.

Have been extensively employed of late by the profession for
the treatment of diseases of the uterus* Cocoa butter was until
lately the basis of nearly all, but Dr. Greenhalgh has intro-
duced some of which isinglass and glycerine are the component
parts, and which obviate the objection sometimes expressed by
patients to the greasy nature of the cocoa butter.—See also Sup-
positories.

PILL, PLUMMER'S.

PILULA HYDRARGYRI SUBCHLORIDI COMPOSITA.

Is a very useful alterative, especially in cutaneous eruptions,
and in secondary syphilitic symptoms, particularly when affect-
ing the skin. In constitutional eruptions, and those pimples or
blotches which occur on the face in spring and autumn, one of
these pills may be taken night aud morning, in conjunction with
the decoction of sarsaparilla. Should their exhibition affect the
bowels, a small portion of opium may be added. The dose is
from five to ten grains.


PLASTER, BLTSTER.                                           121

PILL, COMPOUND BHTXBABB.

German. Zusammengesetzter Rhabarber Extract.
A very useful purgative pill in dyspepsia. Dose, live grains.

PIL. BITFI.

PILULA ALOES CUM MYRRHA.

French. Pilules d'Aloes et Myrrhe.
This pill is a good stomachic and purgative, and well calculated
for delicate females, especially where there is uterine obstruction.
The dose is from ten to twenty grains.

PLASTEB, ADHESIVE.

French. Emplàtre Adhèsif.
German. Heflpflaster.

PLASTEB, DIACHYLON.

French. Emplàtre de Diachylon.

German. Bleipfl aster.
These plasters are used for keeping on other dressings, and for
retaining the edges of recent wounds together. They are also
much employed for the relief of corns and bunions.

PLASTEB, BELLADONNA.

French. Emplàtre de Belladone.
German. Belladonna Pflaster.
Is a useful local application for the relief of neuralgic and
chronic rheumatic pains.

PLASTEB, BLISTEB.

French. Emplàtre Vesicant.
German. Spanischfliegen Pflaster.
Italian. Emplastro di Cantarelle.
This plaster is employed, as its name implies, for the fuir-pose

Q


122

PLASTER, BLISTER.

of blistering the skin. In local pains, and inflammation of parts
internally situated, blisters are generally applied. To the angi-
nose affections, blisters are well suited, and particularly to in-
flammatory sore-throats and croup, though their application
should generally be preceded by pretty active evacuations, and
by topical bleeding with leeches or cupping. To check the
vomiting in cholera morbus, blisters have sometimes been applied
over the stomach, or to the extremities ; but, in exhausted states
of the system, sinapisms are to be preferred. They are also
much used in all affections of the brain ; but, to be serviceable,
they require to be used with great discrimination. In the treat-
ment of ophthalmia, and some other affections of the eye, blisters
constitute an essential part. It is customary to apply them
behind the ear, or to the temples, or back of the neck. They
afford most relief in the last-named position, where the attack
is obstinate. The eruptive diseases, in certain states at least,
demand the use of blisters. They have been found advantageous
to sustain the system in typhus or confluent small-pox, and also
in the latter complaint, when the eruption suddenly recedes.
Exactly with the same view are they directed in measles, under
similar circumstances ; and, moreover, to relieve the violent
catarrhal affection which often attends or follows this disease.
The utility of blisters in arresting the malignant forms of ery-
sipelas is established by the amplest experience. With nearly
the same advantage, they are prescribed in scarlet fever, to sup-
port the system when approaching the typhoid state; and should
the throat be affected, they are still more important as a topical
application earlier made. Certain spasmodic affections of the
chest are sometimes benefited by the use of them : among which
may be mentioned hooping-cough, asthma, &c. Behind the ears
they are sometimes useful in deafness, and not less so in that
painful affection of the ear, called earache ; and on the cheek they
sometimes relieve the toothache.

In applying blisters, care should be taken to attach them to the
part by a proper rim of adhesive plaster, but they should not be
bandaged down ; and, in spreading them, the spatula should be only
sufficiently warm to soften the blister plaster. A blister should
remain on till it draws effectually. The ordinary time required
for this purpose is ten or twelve hours ; but on the head at least


PLASTER, BURGUNDY PITCH,

123

double this period j and in this case, to prevent strangury, the
hair should be removed several hours previous to the application
of the blister, if such a delay be admissible. Children, owing to
delicacy of skin, are mnch more speedily blistered ; and hence, in
their cases, the plaster may be earlier removed. In local and
inflammatory affections it should be applied as nearly as possible
over the immediate seat of the complaint, after blood-letting has
been carried to the necessary extent. In individuals liable to
strangury, or where, from excessive irritability, much pain is
excited, it will be proper to remove the blister after three or four
hours, or, as soon as the rubefacient effect is produced, to bathe
the part with a mixture of olive oil and laudanum, or fresh lard,
and re-apply it. Should this not succeed in doing away with
the inconvenience, a soft emollient poultice may be substituted,
which generally soothes the irritation. As preventives, it will
be prudent to direct the free use of diluent beverages, as barley-
water, linseed-tea, or a solution of gum arabic. Should strangury
be violent, fomentations to the pubes, or the warm bath, or
camphor, balsam copaiva, turpentine, buchu-tea, and, above all,
opium, particularly in the form of an enema, should be resorted
to. The usual dressing for a blister is simple cerate, spread
thinly on linen. A common bread poultice forms the best appli-
cation for the first twenty-four hours. Should there be much
irritation, a mixture of lime-water, with olive-oil or lard, as in
burns, sometimes affords much relief. To keep a blister open,
the savine ointment is usually employed.

(PLASTER, BURGUNDY PITCH.
French. Emplàtre de Poix de Bourgogne,
German. Pedipflaster.
Spread on leather, this plaster forms an excellent rubefacient,
occasioning a slight irritation, though rarely amounting to a
blister. A plaster worn on the chest often does good in pro-
;racted coughs, in hooping-coughs, and in asthma. It is some-
limes useful in rheumatic and other painful affections, when
■plied over the seat of the complaint. It is also an excellent*
>reventive of coughs.

a 2


124

POMEGRANATE BARK.

PLASTER, SOAP.

French. Emplàtre de Savon.
German. Seifenpflaster.

Is a mild discutient, and is deemed a useful application to
tumours of various kinds. In cases of sprains, and slight en-
largement of joints from accidents, it is commonly employed in
preference to any other plaster.

PLASTEB, SOAP CERATE.

Spread on linen around fractured limbs, wThen inflammation is
abated, serves both as an adhesive plaster and as a saturnine
application.

PODOPHYLLUM.

Has been largely used in America and in England as a drastic
cathartic, but its action is very uncertain. In doses of a quarter
to half a grain, it operates on theliver and bowels, producing free
bilious discharges. According to some practitioners, it has been
found very serviceable in cases of jaundice and hepatic obstruc.
tions ; or, combined with the compound extract of colocynth, or
the compound rhubarb pill, it is very useful in relieving that
irregular action of the bowels termed bilious derangement.
When given to children, one-tenth or one-eighth of a grain, well
triturated with sugar, will operate as a purgative, and seldom
disagrees. Extract of Henbane, in combination with Poclo-
phyllin, will generally prevent any griping effect from the use of
this medicine.

POMEGRANATE BARK.
French. Ecorce de Grenadier.
German. Granatwurzel Rinde.
Italian. Scorza del Melogranati.

The chief use of this bark is as an astringent in chronic
diarrhoea and in dysentery, and as an injection in fluor albus. It
has also been much used in India, as a remedy for tape-worm,


POTASH, CARBONATE OF.                                    125

for which a decoction is prepared with two ounces of the fresh
bark, boiled in a pint and a half of water until only three-quarters
of a pint remain. A wine-glassful of this decoction may be taken
every two hours. Strict diet should precede its use ; and if it
should not operate, a dose of castor oil should be given. The
worm is frequently voided after the first dose of two ounces ; but
the same quantity may be repeated for six or seven times in
succession, at intervals of an hour.

PO MEG-BAN ATE PEEL.

German. Granatàpfel Shale.

Is also a powerful astringent, and has long been successfully

employed externally, internally, and in gargles, and for diarrhoea,

&c. The decoction is the form in which it is usually given, in

the same doses as the decoction of the bark.

POPPY HEADS.

French. Capsules des Pavots.

German. Mohnkopfe.

Italian. Capi del Papavero.
Are chiefly used in the form of decoction, as a fomentation to
inflamed or painful parts. The decoction is made by boiling
four ounces of the bruised poppy-heads, with four pints of water,
for a quarter of an hour.

POTASH, CARBONATE OP.

POTASS.E BICARBONAS.

French. Carbonate de Potasse.

German. Kohlensaures Kali.

Italian. Carbonato di Potassa.

Is employed in the preparation of saline effervescing draughts ;

it possesses the same virtues as salt of wormwood, but the large

quantity of carbonic acid it contains renders it more suitable to

this purpose than that article. It may be given in doses of from

twenty to forty grains, dissolved in a glass of water; or equal

quantities of citric acid and carbonate of potash, or about one


126                                             QUASSIA.

scruple of each, with a little sugar, dissolved in water, readily
make the effervescing saline draught so much employed in in-
flammatory fevers.

DIAPHGKETIC DRAUGHT.

Take of
Carbonate of potash, ten grains.
Camphor julep, twelve drachms.
Lemon-juice, two drachms.
Mix, and take during the state of effervescence.

EFFERVESCING EXPECTORANT DRAUGHT.

Take of
Almond emulsion, one ounce.
Ipecacuanha wine, ten minims.
Carbonate of potash, ten grains.
Lemon-juice, three drachms.

Mix.

QUASSIA.

French. Bois de Quassie.

German. Quassienholz.

Italian. Ligno della Quassia.
Quassia was first introduced by a negro, in Surinam, called
Quassi, as a secret remedy for malignant fevers. It was at one
time vaunted as capable of curing intermittents, but it has not
maintained that character, although it is still regarded as a
powerful tonic ; and, from being of a nature to admit of admix-
ture with the sulphate of iron, zinc, and some metallic salts, it
is advantageously given in green-sickness and other obstructions
of the uterus. When combined with cretaceous powder and
ginger, it is a useful remedy in gout; but if any irritation exists
in the stomach, it is injurious. On the Continent, persons of
sedentary habits take a tablespoonful of the infusion of quassia
an hour before dinner, as an aid to digestion. In South America
basins are made out of the wood of the quassia, which are em-
ployed by dyspeptic persons, the wood communicating its bitter-
ness to the beverage which is put into it, and thus proving tonic.
An infusion of quassia, sweetened by brown sugar, is an effectual
poison for flies,


QUININE, SULPHATE OF.

127

QUININE, SULPHATE OF.

French. Sulfate de Quinine.
German. Schwefelsaures Chinin.

Is the name given to the alkaloid derived from Peruvian bark,
which contains all its active principles in a concentrated state,
divested of extraneous matter; and the dose being consequently
small, it is less likely to produce uausea or any derangement of
stomach than bark in substance. It is often very desirable to
administer this medicine in a small volume, and in an agreeable
form. Patients often die of malignant fevers, because they can-
not swallow the necessary quantity of the bark in powder. Some
throw it up after having taken it, and others experience super-
purgation from it, so that the powder passes through the bowels
without producing any effect; even in the most favourable cases
it is necessary that the patient's stomach should, as it were,
chemically analyse the bark which is taken, and extract its
febrifuge principle. A process like this will be always difficult
and fatiguing, even for the strongest digestive organs. Chemistry,
therefore, has done a great service to medicine, by showing how
this separation may be accomplished beforehand. Sulphate of
quinine is now generally prescribed in all cases where bark in
substance has been usually given ; the dose is from one to rive
grains, dissolved in the infusion of roses, or in the form of a
pill. The compound tincture of quinine, which is a combination
of Seville orange-peel and quinine, is also much, recommended, as
an excellent tonic medicine.

The following formula, as ordered by Dr. Copland, was of the
greatest service in a case of dyspepsia, accompanied with hepatic
derangement:—

Take of

Sulphate of quinine, two grains.

Diluted sulphuric acid, two minims.

Spirit of nutmeg, one drachm.

Distilled water, ten drachms.
Mix.—To be taken daily at noon.
It is not, perhaps, sufficiently well known that toothache, and
what is vulgarly called jawache, are frequently cured by the use
of quinine. Many cases of toothache are submitted to the manual


128                                         RHUBARB, TURKEY.

dexterity of some neighbouring dentist, who extracts tooth after
tooth, until at length the sufferer, without experiencing the least
relief, frequently abandons himself to the most excruciating
agony. Several cases have been known in which perfectly sound
teeth have been removed, and often several in succession, in
consequence of no relief being afforded from the extraction of
the first. In addition to this, toothache-drops, many of wThich
contain mineral acids, are used in profusion, to the eventual
destruction of the few remaining instruments of mastication.
When this species of neuralgic odontalgia occurs, quinine com-
bined with tincture of orange-peel and Hoffman's ether, has been
given with marked success.

RED GUM.

GUMMI RUBRUM.

This substance is derived from the bark of the Encalyptus
Rostrata, and is a powerful astringent. Sir Ranald Martin first
brought it into use for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea.
Several preparations of it are made; the syrup and the fluid
extract are perhaps the best adapted for administration. Red
Gum lozenges are also prepared, and are a convenient form for
sufferers from chronic dysentery.

RHUBARB, TURKEY.

French. Rhubarbe.

German. Rhabarber.

Italian. Rabarbaro.
The medicinal properties of this valuable root are so well known,
that it appears almost a work of supererogation to mention them.
It is administered in the form of powder, infusion, and tincture.
As a purgative, the dose of the powder should be from half a
drachm to one drachm; that of the infusion from one to two
ounces. The tincture can hardly be taken in doses sufficiently
large to prove purgative; but it is a valuable tonic when given
with some bitter infusion; and the vulgar practice of taking it
for pains in the bowels too often increases inflammation where it
exists. It is also in very general use as a stomachic, according to


HHUUARB, TURKEY.

12\)

the dose in which it is administered. In cases where the bowels
are affected with relaxation arising from debility, a small dose of
rhubarb will oftentimes be found the best means of checking its
progress. It is sometimes advantageously combined with calomel,
jalap, scammony, and sal-polychrest. It moderates their activity,
and counteracts their tendency to lower the tone of the alimen-
tary canal. In doses of from two to five grains it acts as a tonic
and astringent, and is given as such in a variety of dyspeptic affec-
tions. A mixture of fifteen grains of rhubarb, twenty grains of
calcined magnesia, a drachm of syrup of poppies, two drachms of
compound tincture of cardamom-seeds, one drachm of sal-volatile,
and two ounces of dillseed-water, will prove very beneficial in
removing many disorders to which children are subject, from
redundancy of acidity in the stomach and intestines, given in
doses of a teaspoonful every three or four hours, as circumstances
may require. When combined with sal-polychrest, or any other
of the neutral salts, its nauseous flavour may be covered by adding
a few grains of aromatic powder, or some aromatic water. The
powder known by the name of " Dr. Gregory's powder" is com-
posed of Turkey rhubarb, calcined magnesia, and aromatics ; and
is found useful to persons of gouty and dyspeptic habits. The
root in its entire state is a favourite remedy with those whose
bowels are habitually constipated, and who lead a sedentary life.
They chew a piece about five grains every morning; and the taste,
though at first disagreeable, becomes, by habit, less so, till at last
it is rather pleasant than otherwise.

As a laxative for infants of from two to twelve months old,
rhubarb may be given in the dose of from three to six grains ;
for children above that age, the dose may vary from ten grains
to one scruple. As a tonic, the dose for children one or two
years old is two or three grains, twice daily ; for somewhat older
children, four or five grains.

Rhubarb acts most powerfully when given in powder ; but the
infusion is sufficiently active for young children, and perhaps more
convenient, as the taste can be thus better disguised. Cinnamon
has this tendency, and should, therefore, be selected as the aro-
matic with rhubarb. Sal-polychrest, Rochelle salt, or soluble
tartar, may be combined with infusion of rhubarb.

Beer, medicated with rhubarb, has been given with success,

G 3


130                                       RHEUMATIC POWDER.

by many of the Continental physicians, in cases of marasmus \
{emaciation).

The following is the form for making it:—Take of sliced
rhubarb, two drachms; let this be put into a well-stoppered j
bottle, with a quart of good small beer. This medicated beer is j
to be the ordinary drink; when this quantity is drunk, the
bottle may be filled a second time with beer ; after which the
rhubarb wall have lost its virtue. Should the medicated beer be ]
too strong, double the quantity of beer should be added in the j
first instance.

DYSPEPTIC POWDER,

Take of
Powdered rhubarb,

Powdered calumbo, of each ten grains.
Aromatic powder, live grains.
Mix.
This powder may be taken at bed-time.

DYSPEPTIC PILL.

Take of
Powdered rhubarb,

Powdered myrrh, of each fifteen grains.
Extract of aloes, seven grains.
Extract of chamomile, one scruple and a half.
Syrup of ginger, sufficient to make twenty pills.
Two or three of these pills may be taken an hour before dinner,
in dyspepsia accompanied with constipation.

EHEUMATIC POWDER.
This powder has been found effectual in that kind of rheu-
matism most painful in bed, and is hardly ever known to fail of
affording relief. It is a gentle deobstruent, and an active purga-
tive ; and where a dose of the latter is required, there cannot be
a more safe, easy, or effectual medicine. There is nothing either
mercurial or antimonial in the preparation ; bub it may be pru-
dent to be careful of cold, the same as with any other brisk
purgative medicine. Eighty grains are usually a sufficient dose;
young people should, of course, take a less quantity, according to
strength or age. The powder is to be mixed in a wine-glass of


ROSE LEAVES.

131

white wine, and an equal quantity of water, over night; and
taken in the morning, about two hours before rising. No meat
whatever, fruit, or vegetables, are to be eaten on the day of
taking the powder. Thin gruel, very weak broth, tea, &c., ma}'
be drunk plentifully ; and bread, or very light pudding, may be
taken for dinner.

The powder should be repeated in two or three days, according
to the strength of the patient, and the active effects of the first
dose, which should be considerable.

ROCHELLE SALT.

French. Tartrate de Soude et de Fotasse.

German. Natrum-Weinstein.

Italian. Tartrato di Potassa e di Soda.
This salt was first prepared and introduced as a purgative by
an apothecary of Rochelle. It was long considered an excellent
medicine, and was supposed to be fitted for all complaints. It
lost, however, much of its popularity for some time, but was
again restored to favour by the introduction of the Seidlitz
powders. It is given in doses of from half an ounce to an ounce
and a half, for the same purposes as Epsom salts.

ROSE LEAVES.
French. Fleurs des Roses Rouges.
German. Rosenblàtter.
Italian. Rosa Domestica.
Are astringent, and are used for making the conserve, the infu-
sion, the syrup, and the honey of roses. All these preparations,
with the exception of the honey, tend to confine the bowels. The
conserve has been much recommended in chronic coughs, in which
a gentle tonic and astringent is indicated, and, acidulated witli
sulphuric acid, in the perspirations connected with general debility
of the system. As a gentle astringent, the infusion, acidulated,
is a useful gargle in affections of the throat, and as a collyrium in
some species of ophthalmia. The infusion of the leaves and the
confection are excellent vehicles for the administration of purga-
tive saline salts and sulphate of quinine.


132                                       SAL AMMONIAC.

SAFFRON.

French. Safran.

German. Safran.

Italian. Zafferano.
Was known to the ancients, and was employed by the Romans,
both as a medicine, and for strewing the temples and theatres, to
diffuse an agreeable odour through them. It was brought to
England in the reign of Edward III., by a pilgrim, who concealed
a bulb of it in his staff, made hollow for that purpose. Much
evil is sometimes produced by the custom, prevalent among the
lower classes, of administering saffron at the commencement of
fevers attended with cutaneous eruptions—as, for example,
measles and small-pox—with the idea of throwing out the
eruption. It is also much used in cookery, confectionery, and
by the dyers.
                        ________

SALEP.

French. Salep.
German. Sale]).

This substance comes from Persia, but is said also to be manu-
factured in Europe. Its properties are similar to those of sago
and arrow-root. Dr. Percival states it to have the singular pro-
perty of concealing the taste of salt water. Hence, to prevent the
dreadful calamity of famine at sea, it has been proposed that the
powder of it should constitute part of the provisions of every
ship's company.

The celebrated Hufeland confidently recommends salep as a
most wholesome and nutritive food for young children. He says
he found it of the greatest service in restoring the strength and
flesh of exhausted and emaciated children. It is mixed with
water, &c., in the same manner and proportion usually followed
in preparing arrow-root.

SAL AMMONIAC.
French. Sel Ammoniac.
German. Salmiak.
Italian. Sale Ammoniaco.
Is sometimes used internally in inflammation of the mucous
membranes, particularly in bronchitis, when not attended with


SAL POLYCHREST.

133

fever, pain, or irritability; also in a great variety of chronic
cases. The dose is from five to twenty grains, every two or three
hours. Externally it is applied as a discutient to indolent tumours
and sprains, dissolved in vinegar, with sometimes the addition of
a little alcohol; and a similar solution is employed as an applica-
tion, in some forms of inflammation, to chilblains, and to some
cutaneous eruptions. Mixed with saltpetre, it is powerfully refri-
gerant, and is sometimes employed with advantage in gargles.

UNBROKEN CHILBLAINS.

Take of
Sal ammoniac, two drachms.
Distilled water, two ounces.
Spirit of rosemary, half an ounce.
Mix.

SPRAINS, CONTUSIONS, ETC.

Take of
Sal ammoniac, two drachms.
Distilled vinegar, six ounces.
Camphorated spirit, two ounces.
Mix.

PUTRID SORE THROAT.

Take of
Sal ammoniac, twenty grains.
Camphor, one scruple.
Decoction of bark, six ounces.
Mix, and make a gargle ; recommended by Dr. Copland.

SAL PRUNELLA.

French. Sel de Prunelle.
Allowed to dissolve slowly in the mouth, it will frequently
remove incipient sore throat. It is frequently used by singers
and public speakers, for moistening the fauces.

POTASSJE SULPHAS,

OR

SAL POLYCHREST.

French. Sel Polychreste.
Is a very useful aperient, and, in conjunction with rhubarb,


134

SALT OF STEEL.

forms an excellent medicine for children. Fifteen grains of this
salt, and five of rhubarb, mixed with a small quantity of dillseed
water, may be given to children of from four to six years of age,
as an effectual though gentle means of removing visceral obstruc-
tions. In the dose of a drachm to a drachm and a half, this salt
is purgative ; but, from its sparing solubility, it is generally given
in the form of powder, in doses according as it is intended to act
as a deobstruent or purgative.
Take of

Sal polychrest, ten grains.

Powdered rhubarb, five grains.

Aromatic powder, five grains.
Mix.

SALT OF WORMWOOD AND SALT OF TARTAR.

French. Soucarbonate de Potasse.

German. Kohlensàures Kali.

Italian. Sotto-carbonato di Potassa.
In cases where an alkali is indicated, this preparation offers an
agreeable and efficient remedy. In disordered states of the diges-
tive functions, alkalies frequently act with surprising effect. In
some calculous affections their value has been confirmed by the
benefit derived from a course of alkaline medicines. The dose is
from ten grains to half a drachm. —See Potash, Bicarbonate.

SALT OF STEEL.

French. Sulfate de fer Dessèchè.

German. Schwefelsàures Eisen.

Italian. Solfato di Ferro.
is a useful remedy, when exhibited with due caution, in all
cases in which preparations of iron are indicated; but in improper
doses it occasions pain of the bowels, nausea, and vomiting, and
often proves hurtful by continuing its use for too long a period.
It is given with advantage in diabetes, in the latter stage of con-
sumption, and in amenorrhoea depending on a weakened action of
the blood-vessels. The dose is from one to five grains, combined
with ammoniacum, rhubarb, myrrh, or bitter extracts.


SARSAPAfClLLA.                                                135

SAL-VOLATILE.

See Spirit of Sal- Volatile.

SAL-VOLATILE, CAMPHORATED.

Sal-volatile, combined with camphor, is more efficacious than
most remedies, in affording relief in depression of spirits, heart-
burn, spasms, palpitations, &c. In its present combined form
this preparation, occupying but little space, will be found parti-
cularly convenient and useful as an immediate remedy, especially
to ladies who suffer from faintness, hysterics, sickness, or nervous
headaches, in crowded or overheated assemblies ; for which pur-
pose it may be taken in the dose of sixty drops, or a drachm,
either on a lump of sugar, or mixed with a glass of water. It may
also be used as a stimulus to the nostrils in case of fainting.

SARSAPARILLA.

French. Salsepareille.
German. Sarsaparille.
Italian. Salsapariglie.

This root is a native of the West Indies. As a medicine its
fortune has been exceedingly fluctuating. When originally intro-
duced into the Materia Medica, it was thought a sovereign cure
for syphilis ; but in a short time it lost nearly all its reputation.
The evidence of the best practitioners of the present day is, how-
ever, decidedly in its favour, as a valuable alterative remedy ;
for, in large doses, and sufficiently persevered in, it has cured
cutaneous eruptions, sore-throats, obstinate rheumatic affections,
those anomalous pains in the bones and joints, and other symp-
toms, which arise in certain constitutions, and are apparently the
joint effect of mercury and of the syphilitic virus. Mr. Bacot
remarks, that there is no medicine in the whole Materia Medica
comparable to the sarsaparilla for the purpose of restoring the
tone of the stomach, and recruiting the constitution broken down
by long-protracted disease, or by an extended course of mercury.
Sarsaparilla is administered in decoction, syrup, powder, and
essence ; but experience has proved that the concentrated essence


136

SENEKA ROOT.

is the most convenient, as well as the best preparation. The
decoction, when properly prepared, is a useful mode of taking this
medicine ; but, as it will not keep for more than one or two days,
it has its objections. The syrup is not liable to ferment, but the
sugar is apt sometimes to disagree with the stomach. It is gene-
rally given as an alterative, in the dose of two teaspoonfuls, mixed
with water, three times a day. The powder is administered in
doses of one ounce daily, which quantity is much too large for
debilitated stomachs. The concentrated essence will keep for any
length of time, and it contains all the medicinal virtues of the
articles which enter into the composition of the compound decoc-
tion of the College of Physicians. One tablespoonf ul, mixed with
half a pint of spring water, is equal to half a pint of the decoction.
Dr. Copland states, that he has given his concentrated preparation,
combined with dandelion, or the liquor of potash, with great
success in cedematous swellings of the lower limbs, caused by
obstruction, or other diseases of the glands.

SEDATIVE LIQUOR OP OPIUM.

LIQUOR OPII SEDATIVUS.

This preparation being deprived of the stimulating property
(narcotine) which causes the unpleasant sensations produced by
the exhibition of opium, will be found highly beneficial where
sedatives are required. The dose is the same as that of the tinc-
ture of opium (laudanum) of the Pharmacopoeia, live to twenty
minims.

SENEKA ROOT.

French. Racine de Virginie.

German. Senegawurzel.

Italian. Poligala Virginiana.
Has been much used in America, as a powerful diuretic and
expectorant, in doses of ten to thirty or forty grains in powder ;
and in larger doses it is said to produce vomiting and purging.
Two or three tablespoonfuls of the decoction, prepared by boil-
ing an ounce of the root in a pint and a half of water till it is
reduced to a pint, are given for the relief of asthma, chronic


SENNA LEAVES.                                               137

cough, dropsy, and gout. Dr. Chapman states that it is a most
active and certain emmenagogue.

SENNA LEAVES.

French. Feuilles de Sènè.

German. Sennesblàtter.

Italian. Senna.
Senna is a useful and very general purgative, there being
scarcely any disease in which it cannot be administered. The
infusion is the best form of giving the medicine, which is made
by macerating for an hour, in a covered vessel, two ounces of
senna, a drachm of ginger, and a pint of boiling water. The
purgative power of this infusion is greatly increased by the addi-
tion of camphor julep, or the decoction of guaiacum. The dose
of the infusion is from an ounce to two ounces, but it is seldom
given alone. It is customary to disguise the nauseous taste of
senna by infusing two drachms of the leaves with a little Bohea
tea, in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and adding, when
poured off clear, a little sugar and milk. Children will very
often take this medicine when it would have been difficult to
persuade them to take senna in any other form. The infusion of
senna, combined with Epsom salts and tincture of senna, forms
the celebrated black draught.

SENNA MIXTURE.

Take of
Infusion of senna,
Pimento-water, of each one ounce.
Soluble tartar, two drachms.
Tincture of orange-peel, one drachm.
Mix.
A child may take one or two teaspoonf ids every three hours.

BLACK DRAUGHT.

Take of
Infusion of senna, five drachms.
Cinnamon-water, two drachms.
Tincture of senna, one drachm.
Epsom salts, two drachms.

Mix.


138

SNAKE-ROOT.

SIMAKUBA BARK.

French. Ecorce de Simarouba.
German. Simarubenrinde.
Italian. Corteccia di Simaruba.

Simaruba bark has been highly praised for its remedial powers
in chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, and dyspeptic affections. The
dose in powder is from one scruple to half a drachm, but it is
generally given in the form of infusion in protracted cases of
diarrhoea in children. The late Dr. Baillie prescribed the follow-
ing mixture with great success :—

Infusion of Simaruba, one ounce and a half.
Diluted nitric acid, four minims.
Syrup of cloves, four drachms.
Laudanum, six minims.

Mix.—One or two teaspoonfuls of this mixture to be given in
barley-water, three or four times a day.

SNAKE-ROOT.

French. Racine de Serpentaire de Virginie.
German. Virginische Schlangenwurzel.
Italian. Serpentaria Virginiana.

Has long been regarded as serviceable in cases that required the
combined powers of a diaphoretic and tonic, as in some of the
stages of typhus and other low fevers ; it has also been found to
exalt the febrifuge powers of Peruvian bark in cases of protracted
agues. It is given in powder, from a few grains to a scruple or
half a drachm. The infusion is the best form for its administra-
tion, in the proportion of one ounce of the bruised root macerated
for two hours in two pints of boiling water, and strained. Of
this infusion an ounce and a half may be taken for a dose. It is,
however, necessary to state that the stimulating properties of this
root should prevent its employment in the inflammatory dia-
thesis.


SODA, CARBONATE OP

139

SOAP, CASTILE.

French, Savon d'Espagne.
German. Spanische Seife.
It is chiefly used to modify the action of aloes, rhubarb, and
other purgatives, by dividing them minutely, and increasing their
solubility.

SODA, CARBON"ATE OF.

SOD^E BICARBONAS.

French. Carbonate de Sonde.

German. Doppelt Kohleusàures Natrum.

Italian. Carbonato di Soda.
This preparation of soda has been much used as an antacid
and deobstruent. Hence its utility in removing heartburn,
which frequently depends on the presence of superabundant acid
in the stomach. As a lithontriptic, in cases of uric gravel, it
may be given in doses of from ten to forty grains, dissolved in
water; its taste is less nauseous than the carbonate of potash,
and hence its more general use in dyspepsia and acidities in the
stomach. It has been given on the Continent for the cure of
bronchocele, and M. Peschier considers it much more efficacious
than iodine. Twenty grains of carbonate of soda, taken the
last thing on going to bed, will frequently procure sleep when all
sedatives have failed. This generally occurs when the patient is
suffering from a superabundance of acid on the stomach. A few
grains of carbonate of soda, added to a small portion of Peruvian
bark and Virginia snake-root, have been given as an effectual
remedy in ague and fever. In doses of from ten grains to one
drachm, it has been highly recommended in hooping-cough ; and,
in still larger doses, as a remedy for tic-douloureux. Thirty grains
of carbonate of soda and tartaric acid, mixed together in half a
pint of water, form an agreeable effervescing draught, which is
slightly aperient.


140

SODA, SUBCARBONATE OF

SODA, MURIATE OF.

(common salt.)

French. Muriate de Soude.

German. Salzaures Natrum, Kochsalz.

Italian. Sal Commune.
According to physiologists, salt is an important ingredient in
the blood ; it probably acts as a stimulant to the alimentary canal,
and assists the digestive juices. Salt is considered particularly
necessary as a condiment to extremely fat meat.

Rickety children sometimes show a remarkable fondness for
common salt, which should be indulged to a reasonable extent.
Sufficient salt should always be put in the broths, and given with
the animal food allowed to children, as it contributes much to the
healthy performance of digestion, and is also a powerful preven-
tive of intestinal worms.

SODA, PHOSPHATE OP.

French. Phosphate de Soude.

German. Phosphorsaures Natrum.
Is a very gentle purgative, frequently used in France, on account
of its taste being less unpleasant than the other purgative salts ;
it is well calculated for children, as it may be given in broth with-
out being detected, It operates in doses of from six drachms to
two ounces.

SODA, SUB CATtBO NATE OF.
(sal soda.)

French. Carbonate de Soude.

German. Krystallisirte Soda. <•
The medical uses of this preparation of soda are the same as
those of the subcarbonate of potash (salt of wormwood), but it is
more frequently exhibited, because it is not so caustic. It is pre-
ferred to the latter in cases of acidity of the stomach, in dropsies,
scrofulous diseases, and hooping-cough. In small doses, and
diluted in water, it proves a diuretic.


SOLUTIONS OF ACETATE, ETC.

141

SOLUBLE TARTAR.

POTASS^ TARTBAS.

French. Tartrate de Potasse.

German. Neutrales Weinsteins'àures Kali.

Italian. Tartrato di Potassa.

This salt is a valuable purgative ; operating easily, and without
griping, and even correcting the griping properties of many other
medicines. It is given in doses of from two to six drachms.
When combined with rhubarb, senna, and aromatics, it is a
useful aperient for children.

Take of
Infusion of senna, four ounces.
Caraway-water, two ounces.
Soluble tartar, two drachms.
Manna, one drachm.
Mix.

A tablespoonful of this mixture may be given to a child every
second or third hour until it operates.

AN APEBIENT DRAUGHT.

Take of
Infusion of senna,

Infusion of gentian, of each five drachms,
Soluble tartar, three drachms.
Compound tincture of senna,
Syrup of ginger, of each one drachm.
Mix.

SOLUTIONS OF ACETATE, MURIATE, AND
SULPHATE OP MORPHIA.

These preparations exert a very powerful narcotic influence on
the system, without acting at the same time as a stimulant, like
opium. They are therefore preferable, in most instances, to
opium or its preparations. The dose of either is from six to
twenty-four drops.


142

SPIRIT OF CAMPHOR.

SPERMACETI.
French. Blanc de Baleine.
German. Wallrath.
Italian. Spermaceti.
Is emollient and demulcent, given in the form of emulsion, in
doses from half a drachm to a drachm and a half, in coughs, &c,
suspended in water by yolk of egg. It is also used in making
ointments.

SPIBIT OP AMMONIA, FCSTID.

SPIRITUS AMMONIA P02TIDUS.

French. Teinture d'Asafoetida Ammoniacèe.
A stimulating anti spasmodic, often exhibited to children against
convulsions, and to females for hysteric and nervous affections.
The dose is from half a drachm to one drachm.

SPIBIT OF AMMONIA, SUCCINATED.

SPIRITUS AMMONITE SUCCINATUS.

French. Ammoniaque Succiuee.
This preparation is much esteemed as a stimulant and nervine
medicine, and is employed, internally and externally, against
spasms, hysterics, faintings, and the stings of insects. The dose
is from ten drops to half a drachm.

SPIRIT OF CAMPHOR.

French. Esprit de Camphre.

German. Kampfer Spiritus.

Italian. Alcoole Canforato.
This preparation is principally useful as an external application.
Combined with olive oil, or soap liniment, it forms a valuable
application to strains and parts affected with chronic rheumatism ;
and Ì3 often used with success as a discutient embrocation to
chilblains. It is also much recommended by many eminent
dentists for the mouth and gums.


SPIRIT OF MINDERERUS.

143

SPIRIT OF CHLOEOPORM.
Formerly called Chloric Ether, but considerably less strong.
Dose, from ten to twenty minims—gives a sweet flavour, and
covers the nauseousness of many medicines.

SPIRIT OF HARTSHORN".

French. Esprit de Corne de Cerf.

This preparation possesses nervine and stimulating powers, and
is beneficial, in doses of from thirty to sixty drops in water, in
nervous affections, debilities, flatulency, and acidity from dys-
pepsia. An Italian physician has lately recommended spirit of
hartshorn in a dose of a large teaspoonful to a dessert-spoonful, in
a glass of water, to counteract and remove the effects of vinous
and spirituous liquors. Combined with oil, it forms an excellent
liniment for sore-throats.—See Spirit of Sal-Volatile, for further
directions as to this article.

SPIRIT OF LAVENDER, COMPOUND.

TINCT. LAVANDULAE COMPOSITUS.

Aii elegant and useful anti-spasmodic aud stimulant, in very
general use against nervous diseases, lowuess of spirits, and weak-
ness of the stomach. It is given in doses of from forty to eighty
drops on a piece of sugar, or in a glass of water or wine. Thirty
or forty drops of sal-volatile, with the same quantity of spirits of
lavender, frequently relieve a nervous headache.

SPIRIT OF MINDERERUS.

French. Acetate d'Ammoniaque Liquide.

German. Mindererus Spiritus.

Italian. Liquore di Minderero.
When assisted by warmth and plentiful dilution, this prepara-
tion is an excellent and powerful sudorific, diaphoretic, and
refrigerant in colds, fevers, &c. ; and as it operates without


144

SPIRIT OF MINDERERUS.

quickening the circulation or increasing the heat of the body, it
is admissible in febrile and inflammatory diseases, in which the
use of stimulating sudorifics is attended with danger. It may be
taken to the extent of half an ounce two or three times a day, in
a glass of any fluid. The following draught may be taken at
night on going to bed, to allay the restlessness and irritation that
often attends a common cold :—

Take of
Mindererus' spirit, three drachms.
Camphor julep, one ounce.
Syrup of poppies, one drachm.
Antimonial wine, fifteen drops.
Mix.
Externally, Mindererus' spirit is employed as a lotion to in-
flamed surfaces, and when diluted with rose-water, it is an excel-
lent collyrium in chronic ophthalmia. If the operation of this
diaphoretic medicine be not aided by warmth, it is apt to act upon
the kidneys, and prove diuretic.

DIAPHORETIC DRAUGHT.

Take of
Mindererus' spirit, three drachms.
Camphor julep, fifteen drachms.
Powdered nitre, four grains.
Syrup of orange-peel, one drachm.
Mix.

LOTION.

Take of
Mindererus' spirit, eight ounces.
Proof spirit, six ounces.
Distilled water, ten ounces.
Mix.

COLLYRIUM.

Take of
Mindererus' spirit, two ounces.
Laudanum, one drachm.
Rose-water, six ounces.
Mix.


SWEET SPIRIT OF NITRE.

145

CONCENTRATED MINDERERUS' SPIRIT.

A teaspoonful (or one drachm), mixed with two tablespoonfuls
(or seven drachms) of soft water, instantly produces Mindererus'
spirit, of the same strength as ordered in the British Pharma-
copoeia.
             .

Dose (when d! luted as ordered above), from two to six drachms,
three or four times a day.

SWEET SPIRIT OF NITRE.

French. Esprit de Nitre Dulcifiè.
German. Saltpeter iEther Weingeist.
Italian. Spirito di Nitro Dolce.

Is much employed as a refrigerant in febrile affections ; and, as
a diuretic, it is frequently of great use in dropsy. Half an ounce
of spirit of nitre, mixed with a pint and a half of spring water,
and taken during the day, is an excellent and efficacious beverage
in fevers of every description. Twenty or thirty drops in a little
water allay fever, quench thirst, and promote the secretion of
urine. A teaspoonful of spirit of nitre, mixed with a small
quantity of simple oxymel and sjTup of poppies, often allays that
troublesome tickling sensation in the throat which accompanies
a common cold.

DIAPHORETIC DRAUGHT.

Take of
Spirit of nitre, three drachms.
Mindererus' spirit, one ounce.
Camphor mixture, four ounces and a half.
Syrup of ginger, two drachms.
Mix.

Two or three tablespoonfids of the above mixture may be taken
occasionally.

H


146                                    SPIRIT OF TURPENTINE.

DIURETIC DRAUGHT.

Take of
Acetate of potash, half a drachm.
Camphor julep, twelve drachms.
Syrup of red poppies,
Spirit of nitre, of each one drachm.
Tincture of foxglove, six minims.
Mix.

SPIRIT OF SAL-VOLATILE.

French. Esprit de Sal-Volatile.

This volatile aromatic spirit is more pleasant to the palate, and
a more powerful stimulant, than spirit of hartshorn. It is fre-
quently found a convenient remedy for lowness of spirits, hys-
terical affections, spasms, or fainting fits, for which purpose it
may be taken in a dose of a drachm, either on a lump of sugar,
or mixed with camphor julep. It is also extensively used as a
remedy for sick-headache. Thirty or forty drops of sal-volatile
are frequently given in any convenient vehicle, to correct the
acidity that often offends the stomach in dyspeptic persons.
When any of the stronger preparations of ammonia are not at
hand, sal-volatile may be used as a stimulus to the nostrils, in
cases of fainting.

SPASMS OF THE STOMACH.

Take of
Sal volatile,

Hoffman's ether, of each a drachm and a half.
Acetate of morphia, half a grain.
Camphor julep, two ounces.

Mix. A teaspoonful when necessary.

SPIRIT OF TURPENTINE.

French. Huile de Tèrèbenthine.
German. Terbenthinol.
Italian. Olio di Trementina.
In large doses this spirit acts as a purgative, and in small doses


SPIRIT OF WINE, RECTIFIED.

147

as a diuretic. It has been used with advantage, in the dose of
ten drops to one drachm, in lumbago. Ten or fifteen drops are
frequently given as a stimulating diuretic, and it is prescribed in
gleets and other similar cases in which copaiba is used. Twenty
or thirty drops, taken two or three times a day in a little water,
are an effective stimulant in chronic rheumatism. A mixture of
ten drops with one ounce of almond oil, introduced upon cotton
into the ears, is serviceable in cases of deafness from a diseased
action of the ceruminous glands. For removing tape-worm from
the bowels, spirit of turpentine is given in doses of from half an
ounce to two ounces, repeated night and morning till the bowels
are evacuated and the worm dislodged; and should the second
dose not operate, some castor oil should be given to aid its pur-
gative powers. The late Dr. Walker, of Leeds, most successfully
used spirit of turpentine, combined with tincture of gentian, in
cases of tape-worm, giving two or three teaspoonfuls every eight
hours in a draught of the infusion of tansy; and every fourth
morning an ounce of the flower of sulphur in a glass of milk.
Dr. Copland strongly recommends turpentine in violent attacks
of cholera morbus, and in various states of low and malignant
fevers, both internally and as an external application in the form
of warm epithems. Externally, spirit of turpentine is also applied
to indolent tumours, to bruises, sprains, and chilblains, after the
inflammatory action has subsided.

SPIRIT OF "WINE, RECTIFIED.

French. Esprit de Vin Rectified
German. Rectifizirter Weingeist.
Italian. Aquavite Rettificata.

Is one of the most energetic diffusible stimulants, both in its
combined and uncombined state. It is seldom employed alone ;
but in the state of brandy, &c, it is daily used as a table-drink,
rubefacient, and, diluted with water, as a tonic, astringent, and
refrigerant, under various circumstances. Externally applied,
and diluted, it forms a lotion for sprains and bruises and ery-
sipelas. It enters into the composition of most of the tinctures
of the Pharmacopoeia. The habitual use of alcoholic liquors,

h 2


148

SQUILL PILL, COMPOUND.

besides the moral degradation which they produce, gives rise to
various diseases and organic lesions. Besides inducing dyspepsia,
dropsy, epilepsy, apoplexy, paralysis, and ordinary mania, they
produce a peculiarly maniacal affection, accompanied by tremors
of the limbs, called delirium tremens.

SQUILL.

French. Scille.

The bulb of a plant growing on the sea-coast of the Mediter-
ranean ; an expectorant and diuretic, and in large doses a purga-
tive and emetic, but seldom given as an emetic, on account of its
great uncertainty, unless in the case of infantile croup, when the
syrup or oxymel is generally administered. When given in
substance, it is in the form of pill. (See Squill Pill) For drop-
sical cases it is administered in combination with other medicines.
As an expectorant in chronic bronchitis, it is usually given with
ipecacuanha or paregoric, where there is little or no fever. The
dose of powdered squills, as an expectorant, is about one grain;
of the pill, from five to ten grains.

DIURETIC.

Take of
Dried squills, twelve grains.
Nitrate of potash, one drachm.
Powdered cinnamon, half a drachm.
Mix, and divide into six powders. Take one twice a day.

SQUILL PILL, COMPOUND

fPILULA SCILLE COMPOSITA.

This pill is used as an expectorant in chronic catarrh, dyspnoea,
and asthma, and, combined with calomel and digitalis, in dropsy.
The dose, as a diuretic or expectorant, is one or two grains, re-
peated two or three times a day.


STRAMONIUM.

149

Take of
Compound squill pill,

Extract of hemlock, of each half a drachm.
Mix, and divide into twelve pills.
One or two of these pills may be taken two or three times a
day, as an expectorant in a chronic cough.

DIURETIC PILL.

Take of
Compound squill pill, five grains.
Blue pill, three grains.

Mix, and divide into two pills.

STARCH.

French. Amidon.
German. Stàrkmehl.
Italian. Amido.

In a medical point of view, it is to be considered as a demul-
cent; it forms one of the ingredients in all cough lozenges ; and
a mucilage prepared by rubbing three drachms of starch with one
pint of water, and then boiling the mixture until it becomes a
jelly, is given, both by the mouth and in the form of clyster,
in dysentery and diarrhcea. Milk and starch, with the addition
of fresh suet, and incorporated by boiling, was the soup employed
by Sir John Pringle in dysenteries, when the mucous lining of
the intestines was injured.

STRAMONIUM.

French. Herbe de Stramoine.
German. Stechapfel.
Italian. Stramonio.

The action of stramonium upon the animal economy is similar
to that of belladonna. It has been recommended as an antispas-
modic in the treatment of convulsions and rheumatism. It is
given in the form of extract and tincture, but it is seldom resorted


150

SUGAR OF LEAD.

to, on account of the uncertainty of its operation. In the East
it is frequently smoked to prevent asthma. The stramonium
employed in this country is the species known as the Datura
stramonium,
that in the East is called the Datura tatula, and the
effects are different in the two species, the latter affording greater
relief to pulmonary affections than the former. The Eastern
plant has been introduced into this country, and the leaves are
very advantageously put into the form of a cigar, or cut up in the
form of tobacco, the fumes of which instantaneously relieve the
milder forms and symptoms of the disease, as well as the most
distressing paroxysms of spasmodic asthma.

STRYCHNINE.

Is one of the most active poisons. Dr. Christison says: "I have
killed a dog in two minutes with a sixth of a grain, injected in
the form of alcoholic solution into the chest; I have seen a wild
boar killed in the same manner, with a third of a grain, in ten
minutes ; and there is little doubt that half a grain, thrust into a
wound, would kill a man in less than a quarter of an hour." Not-
withstanding its poisonous qualities, it is used in medicine, and,
whether given in the form of nux vomica, or in its purer form of
strychnia, it acts very beneficially in some kinds of paralysis, and
in a few other diseases where the nervous system is chiefly
affected. The dose of strychnine is from one-thirtieth of a
grain, usually in solution.

If violent twitchings of the limbs be observed during the exhi-
bition of this medicine, it should be immediately discontinued.

SUGAR OF LEAD.

French. Acetate de Plomb.

German. Essigsàures Blei. Bleizucker.

Italian. Zucchero di Saturno.

Is astringent, and must be used with great caution internally.
The dose is half a grain to one grain : it is given, combined with
opium, for the purpose of stopping pulmonary and uterine hsemor-


SULPHUR, MILK OF.

151

rhage. It is also useful in protracted diarrhoea. * Externally, it
is often employed for the same purposes as Goulard water.

SULPHUR, SUBLIMED.

French. Fleurs de Soufre.

German. Schwefelblumen.

Italian. Solfo.

Stimulant, laxative, and diaphoretic. It is used both internally
and externally in cutaneous diseases, particularly the itch. As a
laxative, sulphur is given in rheumatism, gout, and asthma ; and
when combined with the lenitive electuary and cream of tartar, it
is administered as a cooling aperient for persons afflicted with
piles. The dose is one scruple to one drachm.

AN ELECTUARY FOR PILES.

Take of
Confection of senna, one ounce.
Sublimed sulphur, half an ounce.
Syrup of tolu, sufficient to form an electuary.
Dose, two-teaspoonfuls occasionally.

Take of
Confection of senna,
Sublimed sulphur, of each one ounce.
Powdered jalap, one drachm.
Powdered ginger, half a drachm.
Cream of tartar, half an ounce.
Syrup of ginger, sufficient to make an electuary.
Dose, a dessert-spoonful at bedtime.

SULPHUE, MILK OF.

French. Soufre prècipitè.

German. Schwefel-Milch.

Italian. Solfo Precipitato.
Is used in the same mauner as the above ; and for internal use
is considered preferable to the sublimed, having less taste and
smell, and not being so gritty.


152

SYRUP OF GINGER.

SUMBUL.
Sumbul is the Asiatic name of a vegetable drug until lately
nearly altogether unknown to the medical practitioners of Europe.
It is only within the last few years that in some parts of the
Continent it has acquired considerable celebrity, in consequence
of its ascertained value in the worst stages of cholera. The phy-
sicians of Moscow and St. Petersburg hesitate not to ascribe to its
virtues the saving of thousands of lives during the last epidemic.
This drug was first brought into notice in this country by Dr.
Granville, who, in a visit to St. Petersburg, found it in general
use in that capital as a remedy for cholera. Dr. Granville recom-
mends this drug in what are generally comprehended under the
title of nervous disorders, as a diffusible stimulant, and excitant
of the nervous system, especially in the numerous varieties of
hysteria, green-sickness, suspended menstruation, painful men-
struation, in spasms of the stomach and cramp, in some forms of
paralysis, and in epilepsy. In each of these forms of disease this
remedial agent has been employed with very great success, but
more especially in epilepsy. The Sumbul is administered in the
form of tincture,- concentrated essence, in decoction, in cold infu-
sion, and in powder in the form of pill. The dose of the tincture
varies from twenty to sixty minims, the essence from five to ten
or twenty minims, in a little camphor julep or plain water.

SYRUP OF BUCKTHORN.

French. Sirop de Nerprun Purgatif.
In doses of three or four spoonfuls, this syrup operates as a
brisk purgative. The principal inconvenience attending it is, that
it is very unpleasant, and occasions a thirst and dryness in the
mouth, and sometimes violent griping. These effects may be pre-
vented by drinking liberally of water-gruel, or other warm liquids,
during its operation. It is much used in veterinary practice.

SYRUP OF GINGER.

French. Sirop de Gingembre.
German. Ingiver Syrup.
Stimulant and carminative, and is a useful adjunct to bitter
and tonic infusions.


SYHUP OF POPPIES.

153

SYRUP OF LEMONS.

French. Sirop d'ècorce de Citrons.
German. Zitronensaftsyrup.

Is a very pleasant, cooling, and acid syrup, which may be
exhibited with advantage in febrile and bilious affections.

SYRUP O B1 SARSAPARILLA WITH IODIDE OF IRON.

A preparation well adapted for children and delicate females,
and may be given with great advantage in all cases where a tonic
is required.

SYRUP OF MARSHMALLOWS.

French. Sirop de Guimauve.
German. Althee Syrup.
Italian. Sciroppo d'Altea.

Is emollient and demulcent, and is given to allay tickling
coughs, hoarseness, &c, in conjunction with other remedies. It
is serviceable also in cases of irritable bladder.

SYRUP OF POPPIES.
French. Sirop de Pavot Blanc.
German. Syrup von Mohnkapseln.
Italian. Sciroppo di Papaveri Bianchi.

This syrup, when fresh and properly prepared, is an excellent
opiate ; and in the dose of one or two drachms it is serviceable
in allaying irritation and4 producing sleep, in cases where it is
desirable to avoid opium in other forms.

Syrup of poppies is too frequently administered by nurses as a
sedative to children, but it is in every way objectionable. Dr.
Montgomery states that, in many instances which came under his
notice, a teaspoonful proved fatal to a healthy infant. No form
of opiiun should ever be given to children, except in cases wThere

H 3


154

SYRUP OF VIOLETS.

it is absolutely required, and under proper medical advice. Syrup
of poppies is generally preferred as the opiate for children; but
it is uncertain in its strength, being liable to spoil or be adul-
terated. When genuine and well prepared, one ounce is consi-
dered equivalent to a grain of opium ; so that thirty drops, or
half a teaspoonful, would be equal to one-sixteenth of a grain of
opium, or about a drop of laudanum ; this would be the dose for a
child two or three months old.

SYRUP OF SENNA CORDIAL.
This preparation contains all the properties of senna in a con-
centrated state. A drachm, or a teaspoonful, mixed with two or
three tablespoonfuls of water, will be found for adults an active
and pleasant aperient.

SYRUP OF SQUILLS.

French. Sirop de Scille Acèteux.
German. Meerzwiebel Syrup.

Possesses the same properties as the oxymel of squills. Dose,
from thirty minims to one drachm.

SYRUP OF TOLU.

French. Sirop de Baunie de Tolu.

Is used for coughs, and to impart its agreeable flavour to
draughts and emulsions.

SYRUP OF VIOLETS.

French. Sirop de A7iolettes.
German. Veilchin Syrup.

Syrup of violets, though seldom given in this country, is, when
genuine, an effectual, as well as agreeable, laxative for infants, in
doses of one or two teaspoonfuls; it is sometimes combined with
castor oil to increase its effect.


TARTAR EMETIC.

155

TAMARINDS.

French. Tamarins.
German. Tamarinden.
Italian. Tamarindo.

Are a weak, but an agreeable laxative. From the extent of the
dose which is required to move the bowels, they are seldom given
alone, but generally in conjunction with some neutral salt, or with
rhubarb, or infusion of senna. Tamarind-whey, made by boiling
two ounces of the fruit with two pints of milk, and straining, is
an excellent diluent in fevers.

TAPIOCA.
French. Tapioca.
Is used for making puddings and other nutritive articles for
invalids, in a similar way to arrowroot, sago, etc.

TARTAR EMETIC.

French. Tartrate de Potasse Antimoine.
German. Brechweinstein.
Italian. Tartaro Antimoniato.

Is capable of fulfilling a variety of important indications in
disease, either alone or in combination with other medicines. In
doses of from one to three grains, it proves an emetic and some-
times cathartic ; in doses of one-eighth to one-fourth of a grain,
it excites nausea, and acts principally upon the skin; in doses of
one-sixteenth of a grain, it assists the action of expectorants, and
is sometimes combined with squills, ammoniacum, etc., for that
purpose. The best mode of administering it alone, as an emetic, is
the following :—

Take of

Tartar emetic, three grains.

Camphor julep, four ounces.
Mix, and take a fourth part every quarter of an hour, uniil
vomiting is produced.


156                          TINCTURE OF ALOES AND MYRRH.

One grain of tartar emetic, mixed with ten or fifteen grains of
ipecacuanha, is a more certain emetic than the above. At the
commencement of many febrile diseases, such as small-pox, hoop-
ing-cough, measles, and foulness of the stomach, it generally
proves more successful than ipecacuanha ; but in fevers attended
with debility, ipecacuanha should be preferred. For children,
emetic tartar is not so safe an emetic as ipecacuanha powder. In
minute doses, and combined with calomel, tartar emetic has been
found a powerful yet safe alterative in obstinate eruptions of the
skin. Mixed in the proportion of a drachm and a half, or two
drachms, with one ounce of lard, it is also occasionally employed
externally, as a means of producing irritation and a pustular
eruption upon the skin, and is used against rheumatic pains, white
and other obstinate swellings, and various internal diseases.

TINCTURE OF ALOES.

French. TeiDture d'Aloes.
German. Aloetinktur.

This preparation possesses stomachic and purgative qualities,
but should never be given where there is a tendency to piles.
The dose is from four drachms to one ounce.

TINCTURE OF ALOES, COMPOUND.

French. Teinture d'Aloes, composee.
German. Zuzammengesetzte Aloetinktur.

Is a more stimulating compound than the above. The dose is
from half a drachm to two drachms. It is frequently given a
an emmenagogue, and in the obstinate constipation of elderly
women.

TINCTURE OF ALOES AND MYRRH.
French. Teinture d'Aloes et de Myrrhe.
Is used chiefly as a laxative, tonic, and emmenagogue, in green-


TINCTURE OF ASSAFCRTIDA.                              157

sickness aud other disordered states of health in females, con-
nected with retained, suppressed, or deficient menstruation, and
with constipated bowels. The dose is one or two drachms in

water.

TINCTURE OF ARNICA.

French. Teinture d'Arnica.
German. Arnica Tinktur.

Arnica is one of the most prominent articles in Homeopathic
Materia Medico,
possessing, according to the professors of that
doctrine, the most wonderful therapeutic powers, and is employed
by them in the treatment of acute rheumatic affections, intermit-
tent fevers, headache, apoplexy, toothache, bleeding of the nose
and mouth, vomitiDg of blood, diarrhoea, &c. It is also con-
sidered the principal surgical remedy of homoeopathy. In sprains
and bruises, and after the extraction of a tooth, it often produces
speedy and marked relief. It is usually applied by means of a
camel's hair pencil, or as a fomentation, in the proportion of one
ounce of the tincture to one pint of hot water ; or as a lotion, in
the following proportions :—Two drachms of tincture of arnica
and four ounces of distilled water.

Dose,, five to thirty drops in water.

TINCTURE OF ARTIFICIAL MUSK.
Dose, ten drops for a child twelve years old; five drops for a
child five years old. To be taken three times a day, in a little
water.

TINCTURE OF ASSAFCETIDA.

French. Teinture d'Assafcetide.
German. Teufelsdreck Tinktur.
Italian. Acoole Asfetidato.

Is given in the same cases as assafcetida, in doses of one drachm
or more.


158

TINCTURE OF BUCHU LEAVES.

TINCTURE OF BALSAM OF TOLU.

French. Teinture de Baume de Tolu.
German. Tinktur von Tolubalsam.
Is sometimes used for relieving obstinate coughs attended by
difficult expectoration, when no inflammatory symptoms are
present. The dose is from twenty to sixty drops in a little
barley-water, honey, or mucilage of gum arabic.

TINCTURE OF BARK.

French. Teinture de Quinquina.
German. Chinatinktur.
Italian. Tinctura di China.
The dose is from one drachm to one ounce. (See Bark.)

TINCTURE OF BARK, COMPOUND (HUXHAM'S).

TINCTURA CINCHONA COMPOSITA.

French. Teinture Febrifuge de Huxham.

This tincture has long been in great repute, as one of the best
preparations of bark; but its use has been much supplanted by
the introduction of quinine. The dose is from one to three
drachms. It is a grateful stomachic in dyspepsia. (See Bark.)

TINCTURE OF BENJAMIN, COMPOUND.
(See Balsam, Friar's.)

TINCTURE OF BUCHU LEAVES.
French. Teinture de Buchu.
Is given in doses of from one drachm to half an ounce, in de-
coction of marshmallow, for urinary irritation, gravel, spasmodic
stricture, gleet, fluor albus, &c, and is considered a valuable
remedy for the above diseases.


TINCTURE OF CAPSICUM.

159

BUCHU MIXTURE.

Take of
Infusion of buchu, six ounces.
Tincture of buchu,

Tincture of cubebs, of each one ounce.
Balsam copaiva, one drachm.
Liquor of potash, one drachm.
Oil of juniper, five minims.
Laudanum, one drachm.
Honey, six drachms.

Mix.

A tablespoonful of this mixture, taken twice or thrice during
the day in a cupful of linseed tea, will be found serviceable in
gonorrhoea, leucorrhcea, and gleet.

TINCTURE OF CALUMBO.

French. Teinture de Colombo.
German. Kolumbowurzel Tinktur.

Is a good stomachic, in the dose of three or four drachms in a

wine-glassful of water.

TINCTURE OF CAMPHOR, COMPOUND.
(See Paregoric Elixir.)

TINCTURE OF CAPSICUM.

French. Teinture de poivre de Cayenne.
German. Spanische Pfeffer Tinktur.

Is a good stimulant, in doses of half a drachm or more, in low
typhus, gangrene, &c. A mixture of two drachms with half a
pint of barley or rose-water, and six grains of sulphate of zinc,
or of sulphate of alumina, will answer all the purposes of the
Cayenne gargle, which is much used for relaxed sore-throats.


TINCTURE OF CASTOR.

TINCTURE OF CARDAMOMS.

French. Teinture de Cardamome.

German. Cardamomen Tinktur.
Is a powerful stimulating carminative. In spasm of the
stomach, an ounce, with some other diluted stimulant, or any
carminative water, is given with advantage. The dose may
vary, according to circumstances, from half a drachm to an ounce
and upwards.

TINCTURE OP CARDAMOMS, COMPOUND.

French. Teinture de Cardamome, composed.
Is also a useful and elegant carminative and cordial. It may
be given in the same doses as the above.

TINCTURE OF CASCARILLA.

French. Teinture de Cascarille.
German. Cascarillen Rinde Tinktur.
Is a stimulating aromatic tonic, which may be exhibited in
debility of the bowels and stomach, and in those cases of fever in
which the Peruvian bark proves purgative. The dose is from
half a drachm to two drachms.

TINCTURE OF CASTOR.

French. Teinture de Castorèum.

German. Biebergeil Tinktur.
A powerful stimulant and antispasmodic, mostly exhibited in
hysterical affections in a dilute form. The dose is from half a
drachm to two drachms.

CASTOR DRAUGHT.

Take of
Tincture of castor, one drachm.
Hoffman's ether, ten minims.
Cinnamon-water, twelve drachms.

Mix.


TINCTURE OF CUBEBR.

161

TINCTURE OF CATECHU.

French. Teinture de Cachou.
German. Catechu Tinktur.

Is an aromatic astringent, generally given in protracted diar-
rhoea. The dose is from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonfnJ,
usually combined with chalk mixture.

TINCTURE OF COLCHICUM, AMMONIATED

French. Teinture de Colchique composèe.
German. Zusammengesetzte Colchicum Tinktur.

Dose, from twenty to sixty drops in camphor julep. (See Col-
chicum. )

TINCTURE OF CUBEBS.

French. Teinture de Cubèbes.
German. Cubeben Tinktur.

Dose, one or two teaspoonfuls three or four times a day, in
barley-water. The following mixture is sometimes very beneficial
in diseases of the bladder and of the urinary passages, and in
gonorrhoea and gleet:—

Take of *
Oil of almonds, one ounce.
Mucilage of gum arabic, one ounce and a half.

Mix, and add by degrees,

Distilled water, three ounces.

Tincture of cubebs, one ounce.

Spirit of nitre, half an ounce.

Syrup of poppies, one ounce.

Mix, and take three tablespoonfuls three times a day.


162                        TINCTURE OF GUAIACUM, VOLATILE.

TINCTURE OF FOXGLOVE.
TINCTURA DIGITALIS.

French, Teinture de Digitale.

German. Fingerhut Tinktur.
Is frequently administered as an anodyne in palpitations, spit-
ting of blood, asthma, nervous coughs, and in the last stage of
consumption. In dropsy, benefit has been obtained from its
powerful diuretic action. The dose is from five drops, gradually
and cautiously increased to thirty. From the great care required
in administering this tincture, it should only be given under the
direction of a physician. To obtain a diuretic effect, the infusion
of digitalis is the most certain preparation.

TINCTURE OF GENTIAN.

French. Teinture de Gentiane.

German. Enzian Tinktur.
Is an excellent stomachic, bitter and cordial, and is usually
taken for debility of the stomach and loss of appetite. The dose
is from one to three drachms, in plain water, or camphor julep.

TINCTURE OF GUAIACUM, VOLATILE.

French. Teinture de Gayac Ammoniacale.

German. Ammonium Guajak-tinktur.

Italian. Tinctura Guajachina Volatile.
Is a valuable sudorific in chronic rheumatism. It may be given
at bedtime, in doses of one or two drachms, triturated with
mucilage, honey, or milk ; and followed by warm drinks, such as
ginger-tea, decoction of bark, &c.

A* TI-ARTHRITIC MIXTURE.

Take of
Camphor julep, five ounces.
Volatile tincture of guaiacum, five drachms.
Wine of colchicum seeds, two drachms.
Simple syrup, one drachm.
Mix.
Dose, a tablespoonful every three or four hours, in chronic
rheumatism and gout.


TINCTURE OF LOBELIA.                                       163

TINCTURE OF HENBANE.

French. Teinture de Jusquiame.
German. Bilsenkraut Tinktur.

Tincture of henbane procures sleep without affecting the head,
or procuring costiveness, which opium is apt to do. (See Extract
of Henbane.)

Dose, from five minims to one drachm.

TINCTURE OF IODINE.
[See Iodine.)
Dose, five to twenty minims.

TINCTURE OF JALAP.

French. Teinture de Jalap.
German. Jalappen Tinktur.

Is given in doses of from one drachm to half an ounce, as a
cathartic, and is frequently taken in conjunction with the infusion
of senna and Epsom salts, to increase their activity.

I                               TINCTURE OF KINO.

French. Teinture de Kino.
German. Kino Tinktur.

Is administered in diarrhoea, the latter stage of dysentery, fluor
albus, and in all cases in which astringents are indicated. The
dose is from one to two drachms, generally combined with the
chalk mixture.

TINCTURE OF LOBELIA.

(See Lobelia Inflata.)
Dose, from ten to thirty minims in almond emulsion, or any
bland mixture.


164

COMPOUND TINCTURE OF QUININE.

TINCTUKE OF MYEBH.

French, Teinture de Myrrhe.

German. Myrrhentinktur.

Italian. Tiuctura de Mirra.
Is chiefly used externally as an application to ulcers that re-
quire to be stimulated; also as a wash for the mouth when the
gums are spongy. Combined with tincture of bark, infusion of
roses, and acids, it forms an excellent gargle in putrid sore-
throat, and in the last stage of thrush. The odoriferous tincture
of myrrh is an agreeable and excellent application for these
purposes.

TINCTURE OF MYRRH AND BORAX.
This valuable preparation, which has enjoyed a reputation for
nearly twenty-five years, and received the highest encomiums, is
strongly recommended by Mr. Saunders and man}?- of the most
eminent dentists throughout the United Kingdom, as a useful and
pleasant wash for the mouth, particularly when the gums are
spongy, or have receded from the teeth; it also possesses the
property of sweetening the breath, from whatever cause it may
have been rendered offensive, and, if used daily, will preserve the
gums, keep them in a healthy condition, and prevent toothache.

COMPOUND TINCTURE OF QUININE.

The compound tincture of quinine contains, in a concentrated
state, all the active principles of the bark, divested of extraneous
matter, and the dose being consequently small, is less likely to
produce nausea, or any derangement of the stomach. In inter-
mittent and other fevers, the bark has frequently failed, from the
inability of the patient to retain on the stomach a sufficient
quantity in substance, or of its passing off too rapidly by the
bowels. Chemists have, therefore, rendered an essential service
to the practice of medicine, by combining all the tonic and
febrifuge properties of Peruvian bark under the name of sulphate
of quinine.

The successful results produced from the administration of the


TINCTURE OF RHUBARB.                                165

compound tincture of quinine, especially in the treatment of ague,
by the most eminent of the faculty, are the best proofs of its
efficacy and value.

Each drachm of the tincture contains two grains of the sulphate
of quinine.

TINCTtJBE OF QUININE.
Each drachm contains one grain of the sulphate of quinine.

TIJSTCTUBE OF BHATANY.

French. Teinture de Katanhia.
German. Katanhia Wurzel Tinktur.

Rhatany-root has long been employed by the Peruvians as an
astringent in dysentery; they also use it as a tooth-brush, to give
firmness to the gums and impart a fine red to their lips. In com-
bination with charcoal, in the proportion of one part to three of
the charcoal, it forms an excellent tooth-powder. The tincture
of rhatany has long been recommended, mixed with an equal
quantity of rose-water, as an astringent wash for the gums.

TINCTTTBE OF BHUBABB.

French. Teinture de Khubarbe.
German. Khabarbentinktur.
Italian. Tinctura di Rhubarbaro.

Is an excellent remedy in cases of flatulent affections of the
bowels attended with griping pains, and in diarrhoea free from
inflammation ; but it should not be indiscriminately administered
in every case of pain in the bowels, on account of the stimulating
nature of the spirit with which it is prepared. The dose may
vary from four to eight drachms, mixed with peppermint-water,
according to circumstances. Two teaspoonfuls of this tincture,
taken an hour before dinner daily, frequently give energy to the
stomach, and promote digestion.


166                           TINCTURE OF STEEL, MURIATED.

TINCTURE OF RHUBARB, COMPOUND,

French. Teinture de Rhubarbe composèe.
German. Rhabarbarwein.

Is given in doses of from one to two drachms as a cordial
stomachic, and from six to eight drachms as a purgative, but
under the same restrictions as the above simple tincture.

TINCTURE OF SENNA.
French. Teinture de Senè.
This tincture often relieves flatulent complaints and colics ; the
dose is from two to eight drachms. It is said to be similar to the
well-known nostrum called Daffy's Elixir.

TINCTURE OF STEEL, MURIATED.
TINCTURE OF PERCHLORIDE OF IRON.

TINCTURA FERRI MURIATIS.
TINCTURA FERRI PERCHLORIDI.

French. Teinture de Muriate de Fer.
German. Eisenchlorid Tinktur.

Is an active preparation of steel, and is given as a tonic and
diuretic in doses of from ten drops, cautiously increased to one
drachm, for dyspepsia aud debility. It is frequently conjoined
with infusion of quassia, chamomile, and tincture of calumbo,
and, if the bowels become costive, with Epsom salts.

Take of
Infusion of quassia, ten drachms.
Tincture of calumbo, one drachm.
Muriated tincture of steel, ten minims.

Mix.


TOBACCO.

167

Combined with aloetics and antispasmodics in the following
manner, it is an effective emmenagogue, as well as beneficial in
leucophlegmatic habits :—
Take of
Tincture of muriate of steel,
Compound tincture of aloes,
Tincture of valerian, of each half an ounce.
Mix, and take a teaspoonful two or three times a day in
chamomile tea.

The late Mr. Cline recommended its use strongly in cases of
spasmodic stricture, and consequent suppression of urine.
' Tincture of steel is also a powerful styptic.

TINCTURE OF VALERIAN, AMMONIATED.

French, Teinture de Valèrien ammoniacèe.
German, Zusammengesetzte Baldriantinktur.
In doses of from one to two drachms, mixed with milk,
camphor julep, or ethereal preparations, it is an excellent stimu-
lant and antispasmodic, and advantageously combined with pre-
parations of steel, in cases of chorea, or St. Vitus's dance.

TOBACCO.

French, Tabac.
German, Tabak.
Italian. Tobacco.

The history of this plant, which was brought into fashion in
England by Sir Walter Raleigh, is very interesting. It is the
indigenous production of a little spot, the Island of Tobago. It
has engaged the attention of the sordid, and enchanted the wise.
Everywhere its powers are felt and its fascinations acknowledged.
The Arab cultivates it in his burning deserts. The Laplander
risks his life, amidst the snows, to procure it. No privation is
too severe to the seaman or the soldier while he commands this
luxury. Even polished man, with all the comforts of elegant
society, often cannot dispense with his snuff or his cigar. The


168

TJVA UR8I.

use of this plant produces very different effects on different
constitutions; some get readily habituated to it, while others
suffer nausea, vertigo, vomiting, and general depression from it.
Smoking it to excess discolours the teeth, destroys the tone of
the stomach, causes general emaciation, and has been known to
impair the mental faculties. It is particularly injurious to lean,
hectic, and hypochondriacal persons; it creates an unnatural
thirst; leads to the use of spirituous liquors; increases indo-
lence ; confirms the lazy in the habits they have acquired ; and
above all, it is pernicious to youth, laying the foundation of future
misery. At the same time, there is reason to believe that it is
not injurious to seamen, soldiers, and others who live in cold and
moist climates, take great exercise, or are much in the open air.

Tobacco is used medicinally as an errhine, in the form of snuff;
as a sedative and expectorant in the form of smoke ; and as an
antispasmodic, stimulant, and sedative, in the form of infusion.
A decoction of the leaves is much esteemed as an external appli-
cation in some diseases of the skin, particularly the itch. The
fumes and the decoction are employed by injection in obstinate
constipations of the bowels, and frequently with success : it is
necessary, however, to be cautious against an effect sometimes
produced by its exhibition, namely, fainting, with cold sweats.
Its incautious and inappropriate use has even occasioned death.
Its relaxing powers have frequently obviated the necessity of an
operation in strangulated hernia, and Mr. Pettigrew retarded the
fatal progress of hydrophobia by its use in the form of enemata.

TUBNEE'S CERATE.

CERATUM CALAMINE. (PHARM. LOND.)

Is generally employed for dressing broken chilblains, burns,
and scalds.

UVA URSI.
French. Feuilles de Busserole.
German. Barentraubenblàtter.
Italian. Uva Orsina.
The leaves of this plant are astringent and tonic. They are

a


VINEGAR.                                              169

used in chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the
bladder, in calculous and nephritic disorders, and in various fluxes.
The dose of the powdered leaves is from one scruple to one drachm,
three or four times a day. The infusion, made by pouring half a
pint of boiling water upon two drachms of the leaves, and allow-
ing it to macerate for three hours, may also be given in doses of
from one to two ounces three times a day.

VALERIAN ROOT.

French. Racine de Valorien.

German. Baldrianwurzel.

Italian. Valeriana Silvestre.
Is in very general use as an antispasmodic, and is given in con-
vulsive and hysterical diseases. The dose of the powdered root
is from one scruple to one drachm, two or three times a day.
The infusion, made by pouring a pint of boiling water upon half
an ounce of the root, and mixed with compound spirit of lavender
and the ammoniated tincture of valerian, is given with advantage
in hysterical and other nervous affections, when the stomach
cannot bear the powder.

VERATRIA.

French. Veratrine.
German. Veratrine.
A vegetable alkali, discovered by Pelletier and Caventon;
mostly used, in the form of ointment, in rheumatic and neuralgic
affections.

VINEGAR.

French. Vinaigre.
German. Essig.
Italian. Aceto.

Is sometimes employed as a refrigerant in febrile affections,
being added to any common diluent. Externally, it is used as an
application to burns, and as a discutient. Its odour is grateful


170

VINEGAR OE SQUILL.

when it is sprinkled on the floor of the chamber of the sick in
typhoid fevers ; and the virtue has been ascribed to it of neutral-
izing noxious or contagious effluvia. The vapour of vinegar is
frequently inhaled for the relief of inflammatory sore-throat.

The article called Toilet Vinegar is very well adapted for the
purposes mentioned above.

VINEGAR, BLISTERING.

ACETUM CANTHARIDLS.

This preparation is employed as an extemporaneous blister.
It is applied upon the part diseased by means of a camel-hair
pencil, and the effect is very readily produced. The principal
advantage of such a means is to be found in the rapidity with
which the blister is raised ; but it is questionable whether results
equal to those effected by blistering in the usual manner are ob-
tained. To children, however, placed in immediate danger, as in
cases of inflammatory croup, it may offer superior advantages.

VINE OAR, DISTILLED.

French. Vinaigre distillè.
German. Distillirter Essig.
Italian. Aceto distilado.

Similar in properties to ordinary Vinegar. It is employed in
pharmacy as the solvent of the active matter of several vege-
table substances.

VINEGAR OF SQUILL.

This preparation has all the properties of the squill in substance,
and is occasionally prescribed as a diuretic in dropsies, but
generally in combination with other medicines. It is also used
as an expectorant in chronic bronchitis, where there is little fever,
mixed with paregoric, ipecacuanha, &c. The dose is from fifteen
to thirty minims mixed with a small quantity of any aromatic
water to conceal the taste and obviate nausea.


WATER, CORDIAL PEPPERMINT.

171

VINEGAR, THIEVES'.

French. Vinaigre des quatre Voleurs

Is used as a grateful, refreshing perfume in the chambers of the

sick.

WATER, DISTILLED.

French. Eau distillèe.

German. Einfaches distillirtes Wasser.

Italian. Acqua distillata.

Is employed in a great variety of chemical processes, and for
preparing medicines ; but on account of the trouble of procuring
it in large quantities, it is seldom used to any extent, either in the
preparation of food or as a drink. Heberden considered that a
course of distilled water would be as beneficial in many chronic
pains of the stomach and bowels, as the most celebrated mineral
waters are in other disorders. A medical practitioner of eminence
in Kent ascribed his relief from dyspeptic affections, under which
he had long laboured, to the constant use of distilled water, to
which he was led by the work of Dr. Lamb, whose observations
on water are very interesting.

Cold water is frequently applied as a sedative in local inflam-
mations, and as a means of restraining hemorrhage. It is, how-
ever, inadmissible in inflammations of the chest.

WATER, CORDIAL PEPPERMINT.

The medical virtues of the herb peppermint, in all complaints
of the stomach and bowels, being so well known, this preparation
requires no other recommendation than that, by a careful process
of distillation, it retains all the carminative and antispasmodic
qualities of the herb; at the same time it is so peculiarly agreeable
to the palate, as to render it applicable to all domestic purposes,
whether taken alone or as a vehicle for other medicines, such as
castor-oil, Gregory's powder, and especially saline aperients, which
in persons of a cold habit of body are always desirable.

I 2


172

WINE, ANTIMONIAL.

WATEK, ORANGE FLOWER.

This water is one of the most agreeable of flavours for medi-
cinal preparations. Its sedative effect, which is not generally
known in thi3 country, is especially useful in nervous affections.
A tablespoonful will occasionally allay nervous irritability and
produce refreshing sleep.

WINE OF ALOES.

French. Yin d'Aloes.
Italian. Vino Aloetico.

Is given as a stomachic, in doses of from one to two drachms,
and as a purgative, in doses of from one to two ounces. It has
been prescribed with advantage in chlorosis and dyspepsia, and
affections of the mesenteric glands of children.

ALOETIC MIXTURE FOR CHILDREN".

Take of
Compound decoction of aloes, one ounce and a half.
Extract of liquorice, two drachms.
Wine of aloes, two drachms.
Mix.
Dose, one or two tablespoonfuls twice or thrice a day.

WINE, ANTIMONIAL.

VINTJM ANTIMONIALE.

French. Vin Antimonial.

German. Brechwein.
Is a diaphoretic or emetic, according to the extent of the dose
administered. Ten minims to one drachm, repeated every three
or four hoars, excite diaphoresis ; ten to thirty minims act as an
expectorant; one drachm to two drachms nauseate ; two drachms
to four drachms, given every ten minutes, produce vomiting. But
it is principally used as an emetic for children, in doses of half a
drachm to one drachm every five or ten minutes, until it operates.
It is also very useful in hooping and other coughs, and in inflam-
matory affections of the chest. One drachm of this solution
contains a quarter of a grain of tartar emetic.


WINE OF CITRATE OF IRON AND QUININE.                  173

WINE OF COLCHICUM ROOT.

VINUM COLCHICI.

French. Vin de Colchique.

Is administered with great advantage in inflammatory and
painful nervous affections, such as gout and acute rheumatism;
diminishing the force and frequency of the pulse, allaying the
pain, and cutting short the paroxysm. The usual dose of col-
chicum wine is from twenty drops to one drachm; but the
quantity administered must be proportioned, of course, to the age
and strength of the patient. The following is a good form for its
administration :—

Take of
Col chicum wine, half a drachm.
Carbonate of magnesia, one scruple.
Pimento water, twelve drachms.
Mix, and make a draught, which may be taken when the
paroxysms of pain are violent, or at bedtime.

WINE OF COLCHICUM SEEDS.

VINUM SEMINUM COLCHICI.

French, Teinture de graines de Colchique.

This preparation possesses the same medicinal properties as the
root, and is administered under similar circumstances.

WINE OF CITRATE OF IRON" AND QUININE.

This elegant preparation, combining the properties of iron and
quinine, will be found remarkably beneficial in all disorders cha-
racterized by debility and poorness of blood in either sex. It is
especially suited to females suffering from languor, indigestion,
and imperfect assimilation, and to those more particularly whose
countenance is pallid, or whose nervous system is weakened. The
successful results produced by the administration of this beautiful


174

WINE OF OPIUM.

salt of quinine and iron by the most eminent of the faculty, in all
complaints requiring either of these very important remedies, are
the best proofs of its efficacy and value.

A teaspoonfid (or one fluid drachm) contains five grains of the
citrate of iron and quinine, which is considered an ordinary dose
for an adult.

WINE OF IPECACUANHA.

VINUM IPECA.CUANILE.

French, Vin d'Ipecacuanha.
This preparation is often used as an emetic, especially for in-
fants, to whom it can be given with safety and without difficulty,
in doses of twenty drops, half a teaspoonful, or a teaspoonful,
and repeated every quarter of an hour, until vomiting is produced ;
or half an ounce, or an ounce, according to the age, may be made
into a two-ounce mixture with some simple syrup, and a drachm
taken every five or ten minutes till vomiting be produced. After
a year old, these doses may be doubled, and repeated at shorter
intervals. Ipecacuanha wine is a very certain as well as mild
emetic, and will occasionally produce vomiting when antimonial
wine has failed. The following is a good general formula for its
administration :—

Take of
Distilled water, one ounce.
Ipecacuanha wine, half an ounce.
Simple syrup, half an ounce.
Mix.
Dose, from one to two drachms. The dose of ipecacuanha wine
as an emetic for an adult, is an ounce; as an expectorant and
diaphoretic, from ten to thirty minims.

WINE OP OPIUM.

VINUM OPII.

French. Vin d'Opium.

This preparation is rather stronger than laudanum, and is given
under similar circumstances. Mr. Ware has applied the wine of


ZINC, ACETATE OF.

175

opium to the eye in cases where, after active inflammation has
been subdued, the vessels remain turgid ; two or three drops of it
being introduced under the eyelids.

WINE OF RHUBARB.

VINUM RHEI.

French. Vin de Khubarbe.

Is a warm, cordial medicine ; but the tincture is generally pre-
ferred, as more uniform and less liable to decomposition.

WINE OF STEEL.

VINUM PERM.

French. Vin Chalybè.
German. Stahlwein.

Is chiefly employed in chlorosis, and the relaxed habits of young
females. The dose is from one to six drachms, given two or three
times a day in any aromatic water.

ZINC, ACETATE OF-

French. Acetate de Zinc.
German. Essigsàures Zink.

The acetate of zinc is said to operate actively and promptly as
an emetic, in doses of from five to ten grains; it is also employed
in making astringent lotions, injections, and collyriums in oph-
thalmia, by dissolving two grains in an ounce of water. In com-
bination with alum, it forms an excellent styptic for checking
haemorrhage from the lungs, nose, &c. Internally it is given in
doses of from one to three grains, made into a pill, with conserve
of roses, or dissolved in some aqueous vehicle.


176

ZINC, VALERIANATE OF.

ZINC, SULPHATE OF.

French. Sulfate de Zinc.
German. Schwefelsaures Zink.
Italian. Solfato di Zinco.

This preparation is a powerful emetic. It is not employed in
common cases, where emetics are indicated, but is had recourse
to, as it operates speedily and with much force, iu cases where it
is of importance that the contents of the stomach should be im-
mediately evacuated, or where it is difficult to excite vomiting, as
where any narcotic poison has been swallowed. Its dose is from
five to twenty grains, according to the state of the stomach, and
it should be given dissolved in three or four ounces of water.
Sulphate of zinc has been employed also as an astringent in
chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, and in the treatment of hooping-
cough ; but from its emetic power, its operation is liable to be
harsh, and is not easily regulated.

Two grains dissolved in one ounce of water are employed as an
injection in leucorrhoea and gonorrhoea when the inflammatory
state has subsided, and in gleet; and it frequently succeeds in
checking the discharge, apparently from its astringent power. A
solution of nearly the same strength is used as a collyrium in
ophthalmia. In combination with alum, it forms a very styptic
liquor, which may be used for stopping haemorrhage and checking
increased discharges, externally applied.

ZINC, OXIDE OF.

This preparation is sometimes, but rarely, prescribed and given
internally as a tonic, but is chiefly employed externally as a
powder or ointment, and beneficially applied to slight sores, or
excoriations.
                         ________

ZINC, VALERIANATE OF.

This salt, proposed originally and introduced into medical
practice by Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, is a powerful tonic
and anti-spasmodic, and has been given with marked effect in
hysteria and neuralgia, in doses of from one to five grains, in the
form of a pill. Dr. Neligan prescribed it with advantage, in the
convulsive affections of children ; and considered it to have some
effect in destroying worms.



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