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DISEASES OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN.
Life, it has been said, is a struggle to gratify two instincts-hunger and love. In the preceding pages we have considered the diseases affecting man as an individual; affecting those organs which are concerned in the maintenance of the individual. We shall now proceed to the discussion of the diseases which affect man as a sexual being, as an instrument in the preservation of his race - in other words, to the diseases of the sexual or reproductive organs.
Among the lowest beings, animals and plants, the maintenance of the individual and of the race is provided for by one and the same organism. The minute plant, the fungus familiar to us under the name of yeast, is a microscopic ball, which, placed under favorable conditions, not only maintains its own proper life, but also produces similar independent beings. On the surface of the original ball, minute buds appear, grow, and finally are detached, with the size, shape and powers of the parent organism. As we ascend the scale of life, however, we find special organs set aside in each animal and plant, intended solely for the production of new and similar beings. In the highest animals, this office of reproduction - the most important of all the animal duties - becomes so complicated that the labor is divided between two classes of beings - male and female - which, while similar in all the essentials of individual life, present marked differences in their sexual powers and organs.
In all the higher animals, man included, the development of the sexual organs, and therefore of the sexual instincts, occurs only after the previous development of those organs and instincts essential to the preservation of the individual. The interval which elapses between the birth of the animal and the advent of its sexual life varies according to the term of the animal's natural life. The rabbit becomes sexually mature within a year after its birth ; the elephant only after a score of years ; the human animal after ten to fifteen years. The child is a sexless being, possessing only the rudiments of sexual organs, the germs of sexual instincts. There are, therefore, no essential differences - mental or moral - between the boy and the girl. After a certain period - in our climate usually between twelve and eighteen years - the sexless becomes a sexual being, assuming those traits, physical, mental and moral, which change it into him or her. The distinction between brother and sister, heretofore maintained with difficulty by peculiarities of dress and artifificial customs, becomes natural and unmistakable. The angular awkwardness and innocent freedom of the girl are replaced by the rounded grace and conscious modesty of the woman ; the boy is no longer a companion to be romped with, but an admirer to be enslaved. Both man and woman differ physically from the child,- he more than she-and differ still more markedly from each other.
His skin is rough and hairy; hers smooth and hairless. His outline is angular, his shoulders broad, his hips narrow, his muscles strong, his bones large, his skull thick, his voice deep and harsh ; her contour is rounded, her shoulders narrow, her hips broad, her skin thickly padded with fat, her voice smooth and childlike. Man's physical development fits him especially to maintain the struggle for existence; woman's whole physique is designed for the preservation of her race. Man is essentially strong and selfish ; woman, weak and generous. In man is embodied the individual; in woman, the race.
'Love is of man's life a thing apart,
'Tis woman's whole existence,"
a fact admirably illustrated by two familiar peculiarities of women : In breathing, the child and the man employ largely the muscles of the abdomen ; woman, on the contrary, breathes almost entirely with the chest, because the mutual performance of her sexual duties compels the use of her abdomen muscles for other purposes than those of breathing. Although man's shoulders are broader, yet his collar-bone is shorter than woman's. The latter, therefore, though lacking somewhat the strength and freedom of movement in the shoulder-joint, can support a but den, as of a child, on her breast with less fatigue than he. The transition of the girl into the woman implies mental and moral as well as physical growth - a fact not always appreciated by parents. The physical changes - certainly the most tangible - consist in the development of the sexual organs, lying on either side of the womb ; connected with it by tubes about four inches long, are two bodies resembling almonds in size and shape. These bodies are called the ovaries (or egg-producers); each contains evenatthe birth of the infant thousands of very minute bodies, the eggs. During the earlier years of the child's life these bodies and their contents remain undisturbed ; but at an age which varies with climate, race and surrounding, between 8 and 16 years, the ovaries enlarge; several of these microscopic eggs swell, until finally one of them bursts its covering as well as the wall of the ovary. Meanwhile the other organs concerned in reproduction are likewise awakening to new life ; the womb, in sympathy with the ovaries, is swollen with blood during the ripening of the egg in the ovary. The climax of the process is twofold : First, in the ovary the escape of the ripened egg by rupture of its coverings ; second, in the womb the escape of blood by rupture of the blood vessels. The egg is carried from the ovary along the connecting tube to the womb, and is usually carried with the blood escaping into this organ out of the body ; the girl menstruates.
This, the local process, is accompanied usually by evidences of general disturbance - lassitude, peevishness, pains in the back and loins. Sometimes even convulsions or fainting fits are experienced.
This condition - lasting usually one or more days - recurs at intervals often of great irregularity. One month, two, three, six months may elapse before a repetition of the process. The breasts also, accessory organs of reproduction, exhibit an increase in size, and frequently become the seat of painful or other unusual sensations. During the period of two years, more or less, this transition stage endures,- the birth of the woman - during which the infant woman demands not less careful and assiduous supervision than the infant child ; for during this period the girl is peculiarly susceptible to diseases of the flesh and perversions of the mind.
She must be protected not only from the ailments which inevitably arise from neglect to recognize the importance of the change at hand, but also from diseases which affect other parts of the body with especial frequency at just this time of life. For it is a fact that, just as the infant is susceptible to derangements of health from causes which do not affect adults, so the girl, during the infancy of her womanhood, is likewise peculiarly susceptible to influences which do not affect her younger or her older sisters.
The importance of this fact cannot be overestimated, and is scarcely as yet fully appreciated ; though one of the greatest boons which has in recent years been granted to women by the community is the more general recognition of the necessity for special care at this, the dawn of her sexual existence. As we recognize for convenience a physical, mental and moral nature, so we may consider the changes and the perils at this period as physical, mental and moral.
Among the possible physical ills is the manifestation of constitutional tendencies and of hereditary taints which have lain dormant since the birth of the individual. It happens but too often that the delicate child of consumptive parents, which has maintained fair health during its previous years, yields when this increased demand is made upon it and manifests the first pronounced symptoms of the parents* fatal malady ; so, too, insanity, epilepsy and a score of other affections, the tendency to which was imparted with the parents' blood or acquired through their ignorance, attack the girl at this her critical period, perhaps to overwhelm her at once, or at least to secure a foothold from which they can never be dislodged. Then again there are certain ailments which seem to affect the children of robust and of delicate parents alike. Such is chlorosis, popularly known as the green sickness, [because of the greenish tinge sometimes exhibited by the otherwise pale countenance. In this disease the blood is impoverished, whence the extreme pallor ; yet the root of the evil lies not in the blood, but in the nervous system. The beginning is insidious: lassitude, even prostration ; disinclination for exertion and society ; a capricious appetite, often exist for a considerable time without other symptoms, to the perplexity of parents, perhaps even of the physician ; then occur impairment of digestion, constipation, palpitation of the heart, pallor, irregularity, perhaps suppression, of the menstrual function. Sometimes most curious and perverted tastes are displayed, such as a passion for nibbling slate pencils, for devouring pickles, drinking vinegar, etc.; mental perversities no less remarkable may be exhibited, so that in a few months the previously healthy, rosy child has become an irritable and irritating invalid ; the alarmed friends consider that the girl is in a decline, talk of consumption and heart disease, or having an indistinct idea that a pale individual should always take iron, dose the unfortunate girl with that article. It should be, however, realized that the gretrn sickness is too serious and complicated to be entrusted to home remedies ; that the patient should be at once placed under the care of a competent physician. The disease is caused by a lack of air, sunshine, exercise and amusement; by anxiety, fear, or other emotions; by overwork, physical or mental. To avoid it, therefore, one needs to know only the cause. Its first symptoms can be almost invariably cut short by a change of scene, of occupation and of company.
Yet the most serious physical ills originating at this period are those affecting primarily the organs undergoing development. At this time are laid but too often the foundations of those ailments peculiar to women, and especially to American women, causing painful and irregular menstruation in the girl, sterility in the wife and invalidism in the mother. These ills may be traced usually not to any willful interference with or abuse of these organs, but to an over-zealous use and cultivation of other organs. It is too often forgotten that the chief aim of the girl is to become a woman, and that the time preceding and following the first menstruation should be devoted primarily to this change, to this development of the sexual functions, even to the neglect of other functions. The girl therefore demands and must receive other treatment than her brother ; for him, sexual development is a more gradual and less integral process ; one which does not materially change the bent of his inclinations, the direction of his pursuits, nor his physical habits, which intrudes itself upon his attention by no imperious calls ; a change, indeed, of which he is often long unconscious. For her, it is an introduction into a new world, or rather into the world, on the outskirts of which she has passed the previous years of childish probation ; it is the transformation of the caterpillar into the butterfly. For her there is no possibility of ignoring the change at hand; body, mind and soul unite in calling her attention to the duty of the hour; the strange, uneasy, perhaps painful bodily sensations, the mental languor and indisposition for accustomed pursuits, the indefinable longings and emotions, indicate as plainly to others also the dawn of the new existence. The successful initiation of the child into this new life, is evidently the first and most important object of those interested in her welfare ; for whatever may be her material and social advantages, she must be nevertheless a woman ; and for a woman, the successful pursuit of happiness is impossible without sexual perfection.
The care demanded by the child during the period of puberty includes no active interference with the sexual functions themselves, but simply the regulation of the other functions of body and mind, so that the child's strength, or at least a sufficient portion thereof may be diverted from other into the new channels ; a diversion of strength which would, we may assume, occur in the natural state of the animal without artificial regulation or interference. Indeed, it should be understood that the object of supervision, whether by parents or by the physician, is not to surround the girl with artificial barriers, nor to stimulate in any way her sexual development, but merely to remove those artificial barriers and unnatual stimulants to proper sexual growth which are the necessary and inseparable outgrowths of our social customs ; for it is a fact often observed and repeated, that the stimulants to excessive mental effort, inseparable from a high state of civilization, result in a neglect of the bodily functions. Jt is not asserted that extreme mental and physical culture are incompatible ; but to secure thefr coexistence in the same individual, each - body and mind - must be carefully and conscientiously trained. The tendency of modern life, particularly in the United States, is to high-pressure mental effort, without regard to the physical foundation therefor. Nowhere in the world is the stimulus to mental effort so great and so widely disseminated ; nowhere are the rewards for successful effort so sure and so readily attained ; nowhere are the opportunities and inducements for individual effort, the natural resources and advantages for collective enterprises, so enticing. As a result, therefore, the burdens of life are most eagerly assumed at an age which was formerly regarded as scarcely that of discretion. As a further result, the preliminary training of our youth of both sexes is crowded into a period utterly insufficient even for the modest attainments of our grandfathers, and doubly so for the acquisition of that knowledge which our modern schools profess to teach. The formal pleasures of society also are no longer monopolized by adults, but are eagerly sought by and granted to children. The demands of society can be met only by a certain devotion to fashion, whose behests must, therefore, be obeyed by the children also. The theater and the novel are amusements as legitimate for the girl as for the mother. In short, precocity is the order of the day. The girl of fifteen is but the copy of her elder sisters indulging in the same pleasures and employments, which oftentimes tax severely their more mature strength and endurance. The result is plain and inevitable : at thirteen, the woman is born and for four years should have nothing to do which can interfere with her growth into womanhood. To put her upon the same diet of amusement and employments as are suited to a woman of twenty, who has completed her sexual growth, must evidently be disastrous ; to subject her immature and tender muscles and bones to the same pressure and strain that may be borne with safety later in life, is irrational in the extreme. An infant fed upon beefsteak and potatoes could hardly escape dyspepsia and other disorders of digestion ; the child compelled to carry heavy weights would naturally have a deformed backbone and legs ; the infant woman, placed upon a diet adapted only to vigorous adults, and assuming a share of the physical burdens inseparable from the pleasures of society, can scarcely hope to escape the penalties as surely inflicted by the sexual as by other organs when abused.
The average girl of thirteen has, perhaps, vitality enough to develop into a robust woman ; but she has not vitality enough to accomplish both this task and the duties which are but too often thrust upon her. One or the other - either the physical development or the social accomplishments, or both - will be but imperfectly attained ; and since the imperfect performance of the social duties is the more readily and earlier observed and avoided, the deficit is left but too often on the physical side of the account.
Yet we cannot charge upon social pleasures the whole, nor indeed the greater part, of the abuse to which the budding woman is subjected; for the greatest enemy to the sexual health of our young women has been the popular system of education. The theater and the ball are but occasional and by no means inexorable demands ; the school is an unavoidable requirement. Our popular systems of education assume that boys and girls can be properly treated alike, and may be expected to accomplish the same work in the same time and at all times. However true this assumption may be in childhood and in adult life, it is certainly opposed to all observation and experience during the period of sexual development. We need not concern ourselves with the questions which agitate and are agitated by our friends, the advocates of women's' rights, so-called. The question of the relative superiority of man and woman is quite foreign to the present subject; the comparison of mental and moral powers of the two sexes is also quite irrelevant.
The fact is, that the girl has a much greater physical and a more intense mental development to acomplish than the boy ; and must moreover complete that development in a shorter time than is allowed him ; whence it follows that she cannot and should not be expected to devote to other functions, whether of mind or of body, as much energy as may be properly required of him during the same period. This fact, so apparent upon the slightest consideration, has been strangely enough ignored by both parents and educators. Girls and boys, whether sitting side by side in the same schoolroom or pursuing parallel courses of study in different institutions, have been expected to work not only five days in the week, but also four weeks in the month. The boy can do it; the girl can - sometimes; yet it is expected that she will always ; she is spurred to perform her school work at any cost by comparison with her male competitors. Too often the success of her school life is purchased by the sacrifice of her sexual perfection. It has been said thac the thousand ills which torment American women may be ascribed largely to the educational methods of our schools and colleges ; not that such methods are the only cause of female diseases, but that they are an important factor. Strange as it may seem, this neglect of the peculiarity of the female organization has been nowhere more apparent and more rigidly insisted upon than in institutions founded and devoted to the education of women. The platform of woman's rights has not as yet been made to include as a plank the right to complete the natural sexual development-a right which implies a sufficient opportunity for the growth of the ovaries and the accessory reproductive organs, and for the establishment of their periodical functions. " It is not enough/' says Dr.'West, " to take precautions till menstruation has for the first time occurred ; the period for its return should, even in the healthiest girl, be watched for, and all previous precautions should be once more repeated; and this should be done again and again, until at length the habit of regular, healthy menstruation is established. If this be not accomplished during the first few years of womanhood, it will in all probability never be attained. "
There are instances in our large cities, by no means rare, in which this special mechanism of menstruation remains undeveloped or attains at best an incomplete, unsatisfactory, perhaps painful development. It is the unanimous experience of physicians, that such cases of imperfect sexual development are usually found in girls with brilliant school records. The body can rarely discharge two important duties well at the same time. To secure the best work from the brain, we rest the muscles and the stomach. The best mental effort, the best literary and scientific work is not performed in the first hour after dinner. It has been found by actual observation, that a greyhound started immediately after a full meal, in the pursuit of a fox, does not digest his food so long as he continues the violent muscular effort of running; while the stomach of a second animal, permitted to rest after his dinner, soon completes its task of digestion. The hound has strength and vitality enough either to digest the food or to pursue the fox, but not to perform both duties at the same time. Muscle-work and stomach-work must interfere with each other if attempted together. The digestion of the dinner slows the muscles, the contraction of the muscles slows the digestion. In order that the animal shall run swiftly, the bulk of the blood must circulate in the muscles; in order that the stomach shall digest properly, a large quantity of blood must circulate in the stomach. The animal does not contain blood enough to support great activity of both stomach and muscles at the same time. So, too, the development of the girl's reproductive organs requires the circulation of large quantities of blood in these organs. The mental activity necessary to prepare and recite her lessons demands the circulation of large quantities of blood through the brain. The girl has not blood enough to perform both lines of work at the same time. Menstruation slows her brain ; study slows her menstruation.
During the menstrual week the first business is menstruation, in favor of which study and other mental effort must be subordinated.
This, let it be remembered, should be the rule, not only at the first and second monthly periods, but also at every period for three or four years, until, in other words, sexual development is complete.
For if the brain be worked continuously, the ovaries must be slighted ; and if slighted, the insult and injury can never be repaired. If the reproductive organs are not developed now, they will not be at any later period. If imperfectly fashioned now, they can be only patched, and not perfected, in after life. Blood must be allowed to flow to these organs in ample quantity, even though the brain have not enough left to study very hard, nor the feet enough to dance very energetically; even though the corset lace be loosened, to permit the increase in size in the ovaries and womb below, and in the breasts above.
" Every physician," says a recent writer, " can point to students whose splendid cerebral development has been paid for by emaciated limbs, enfeebled digestion and disordered lungs. Every biography of the intellectually great records the dangers they have encountered, often those to which they have succumbed in overstepping the ordinary bounds of human capacity, and while beckoning onward to the glories of their almost preternatural achievements, register, by way of warning, the fearful penalty of disease, suffering, and bodily infirmity, which nature exacts as the price for this partial and inharmonious grandeur. It cannot be otherwise.
The brain cannot take more than its share, without injury to other organs. It cannot do more than its share, without depriving other organs of that exercise and nourishment which are essential to their health and vigor. It is in the power of the individual to throw, as it were, the whole vigor of the constitution into any one part, and by giving to this part exclusive or excessive attention, to develop it at the expense and to the neglect of the others. " In the training of our girls the tendency has certainly been to defraud the sexual organs of their just due, during the earlier years of their development; to train the mind, without regard to the suffering which may be inflicted upon the body ; to train the girl's mind, indeed, as the boy's is trained. Already we are perceiving the result: the American woman is both physically and mentally a unique type of humanity, remarkable alike for vivacity, mental attainments, intellectual beauty of face and feature on the one hand, and for the appalling absence of physique on the other. A young American, landing in England, exclaimed : " Now for the first time I see women." An English lady, visiting the Boston schools, said : " I never saw before so many pretty girls together. " These remarks indicate fairly well the impressions made upon natives of the one hemisphere by women of the other. The transient, delicate beauty o^f feature is accorded to the American girl ; the permanent, tangible beauty of health belongs to her European cousin.
It is a painfully significant fact, that the one department of medicine in which the American physician confessedly excels his European brethren, is the diseases of women ; in medicine, as in other things, practice makes perfect ; the skill of the American medical man is, then, an unenviable commentary on the physique of the American woman.
The ailments which affect the organs immediately concerned in reproduction are not, of course, thrust upon the attention of the general public ; yet the generally imperfect development of the accessory sexual organs is a secret the knowledge of which is by no means confined to milliners and dressmakers, who are said to be in the habit of adapting not the dress to the figure, but the figure to the dress. If the only evil resulting from this imperfection of development were the loss of beauty, it would not call for attention on the part of the medical adviser; but it must be remembered that imperfect development of the breast modifies not only the contour of the woman, but also impairs the health of her offspring, and usually implies, moreover, an unsatisfactory condition of the organs directly instrumental in the production of the new being. A recent writer calls attention to this fact in these words : " There is another marked change going on in the female organization at the present day, which is very significant of something wrong. In the normal state nature has made ample provision in the structure of the female for the nursing of her offspring. In order to furnish this nourishment, pure in quality and abundant in quantity, she must possess vigorous and healthy digestive organs and a well-developed sexual system. Formerly such an organization was very generally possessed by American women, and they found but little difficulty in nursing their infants. It was only occasionally, in case of some defect of the organization, or where sickness of some kind had overtaken the mother, that it became necessary to resort to the wetnurse or to feeding by hand ; and the English, the Scotch, the German, the Canadian-French and the Irish women now living in this country, generally nurse their children. The exceptions are rare.
But how is it with our American women who become mothers ?
To those who have never considered this subject, and even to medical men who have never carefully looked into it, the facts, when correctly and fully presented, will be surprising. It has been supposed by some that all, or nearly all, our American women could nurse their offspring just as well as not ; that the disposition only was wanting, and that they did not care about the trouble or confinement necessarily attending it. But this is a great mistake. This very indifference or aversion shows something wrong in the organization as well as the disposition. If the physical system were all right, the mind and natural instincts would generally be right also.
While there may be here and there cases of this kind, such an indisposition is not always found. It is a fact, that a large number of our women are anxious to nurse their offspring, and make the attempt; they persevere for a while, perhaps for weeks or months, and then fail. There is still another class that cannot nurse at all, having neither the organs nor nourishment requisite even to make a beginning. Why should there be such a difference between our American women and those of foreign origin residing in the same locality and surrounded by the same external influences? The explanation is simple: there is a want of proper physical development. " The girl's energies have been devoted to study and mental accomplishment. Her blood has been devoted to her brain ; the development of other organs and of other powers has been sadly neglected.
Dr. Weir Mitchell, of Philadelphia, says: " Worst of all, to my mind, most destructive in every way, is the American view of female education, the time taken for the more serious instructions of girls extends to the age of 18, and rarely over this. During these years they are undergoing such organic development as renders them remarkably sensitive. Today the American woman is, to speak plainly, physically unfit for her duties as woman, and is, perhaps, of all civilized females, the least qualified to undertake those weightier tasks which tax so heavily the nervous system of man. She is not fairly up to what nature asks from her as wife and mother. How will she sustain herself under the pressure of those yet more exacting duties which nowadays she is eager to share with the man?" Dr. Clarke, of Boston, remarks: " In our schools it is the ambitious and conscientious girls, those who have in them the stuff of which the noblest women are made, that suffer; not the romping or lazy sort; and thus our modern ways of education provide for the non-survival of the fittest. Girls of bloodless skins and intellectual faces may be seen any day by those who desire the spectacle, among the scholars of our high and normal schools - faces that crown and skins that cover curving spines which should be straight, and neuralgic nerves that should know no pain. Later on, when marriage and maternity overtake these girls, they bend and break beneath the labor like loaded grain before a storm, and bear little fruit again. A training that yields this result is neither fair to the girls nor to the race. "
It must be remembered, also, that the reproductive organs are the key to a large part of the mental and moral nature-to all that makes a woman womanly. At 45 years, or thereabouts, the sexual organs of woman wither and cease to perform their accustomed duties ; and it is a fact familiar to us all, that at that age a woman loses the chief, indescribable charm which she has previously possessed. Her physical vigor and intellectual accomplishments are retained undiminished, but she is no longer a woman. So, too, it has been observed that those unfortunate females who are condemned by disease to the loss of the ovaries, become, like the women who have had the change in life, sexless creatures. Woman's entire being, therefore, mental and moral, as well as physical, is fashioned and directed by her reproductive powers. It is easy to understand, therefore, that if these powers be never completely developed, there will and must be an arrest of development of her mental and moral nature. It is, then, not alone for the welfare of her body that the dawn of the girl's sexual life should be carefully supervised. In the changes accompanying the development of the sexual system at puberty there is exhibited a most remarkable example of the intimate and extreme sympathy between the brain and the ovaries, between the mind and the reproductive powers. The change in the disposition and character of the girl at this time is by no means limited to the birth of the sexual feelings and the ideas associated with these feelings ; for there arises at the same time a new nature, comprising the highest sentiments of humanity, social, moral, and even religious.
CONTENTS OF DISEASES OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN.
General Remarks about Diseases of Women and Children - Puberty, marriage, pregnancy, baby and baby care.-Hygiene of Puberty: care during the monthly changes.
-When Puberty is Delayed.
-Dysmenorrhaea: causes, treatment.
-Diseases of Pregnancy: treatment.
-Hygiene of Pregnancy.
-Accidents of Pregnancy: causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention.
-Placenta Previa: symptoms, treatment.
-Duration of Pregnancy.
-To calculate the Time of Confinement.
-Attention to the Child.
-Care of the Mother after Labor.
-The Relation between Lactation and the Sexual Functions.
-Hygiene of Lactation.
-The Selection of a Wet Nurse.
-Care of the Infant.
-Food for the Infant.
Diseases of the Child-Bed-Diseases of Child-Bed.
-Child-Bed Fever: symptoms, causes.
The Mother, The Wife, The Mother's Affection-The Mother.
-The Mother's Affection.
Diseases of Women.-Diseases of the Vulva: symptoms, causes, treatment.
-Abscess in the Vulva: symptoms, treatment.
-Eczema of the Vulva: symptoms, treatment.
-Pruritus - Itching - of the Vulva: causes, treatment.
-Excessive Sensitiveness of the Vulva: treatment.
Diseases of the Womb.-Inflammation: causes, symptoms, treatment.
-Chronic Inflammation of the Womb: symptoms, treatment.
-Chronic Enlargement of the Womb: causes, treatment.
-Peri-Uterine Inflammation: causes, treatment, symptoms.
-Displacement of the Womb: causes.
-Falling of the Womb - Prolapsus - Prolapse: symptoms, treatment.
-Flexions: symptoms, treatment.
-Tumors of the Uterus: symptoms, treatment.
-Polyps of the Womb: causes, symptoms, treatment.
-Cancer of the Uterus: causes, symptoms, treatment.
Diseases of the Ovaries. treatment.--Diseases of the Ovaries: treatment. -Ovarian Tumors : causes, treatment, symptoms.
Diseases of Infants.--Diseases of Infants. -Indigestion.
-Disorders of the Bowels.
-Croup: treatment, symptoms, causes.
-Influenza : treatment.
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