As Recommended by 19th and 20th century Doctors!
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TREATMENT OF THE DROWNED.
Rule 1.-Proceed at once to employ means to restore breathing. Do not delay this in order to procure shelter, warmth, stimulants, etc.
Rule 2.-Remove all obstructions to Breathing.-Instantly loosen or cut apart all neck and waist bands ; turn the patient on his face, with the head lower than the feet ; stand astride the hips, with your face towards his head, and, locking your fingers together under his belly, raise the body as high as you can without lifting the forehead off the ground, and give the body a smart jerk, to remove mucus and water from the mouth and windpipe. Hold the body suspended long enough to slowly count one, two, three, four, five, repeating the jerk more gently two or three times.
RULE 3.-Next place the patient on his back on a flat surface, inclined a little from the feet upwards, raise and support the head and shoulders on a firm cushion or folded article of dress, placed under the shoulder blades. Cleanse the mouth and nostrils, open the mouth, draw forward the patient's tongue, securing it there either by holding it with the fingers, or by a piece of string or an elastic band placed over it and under the chin.
RULE 4.-Grasp the patient's arms just above the elbows, and draw them gently and steadily upwards until they meet above the head. (This is for the purpose of drawing air into the lungs.)
Keep the arms in this position for two seconds, then turn them down and press them gently and firmly for two seconds against the sides of the chest, pressing at the same time on the breast and abdomen. (This is with the object of pressing air into the lungs.)
Pressure on the breastbone and abdomen by an assistant will aid this action.
Repeat the measures alternately and deliberately until a spontaneous effort to breathe is perceived, immediately upon which cease to imitate the movements of breathing, and proceed to induce circulation and warmth.
RULE 5.- To excite Respiration,-During the employment of the above methods excite the nostrils with snuff or smelling-salts, or tickle the throat with a feather. Rub the chest and face briskly, and dash cold and hot water alternately upon the patient.
Do not be too soon discouraged. Remember that at any time within two hours your efforts may be successful.
Rule 6.- To induce circulation and warmth.-After breathing is commenced wrap the patient in warm blankets, and apply bottles of hot water, hot bricks, or anything to restore heat.
Warm the head nearly as fast as the body, lest convulsions should be induced. Rubbing the body with warm cloths, or with the hands, and slapping the fleshy parts may assist to restore warmth and breathing.
If the patient can swallow with safety give him hot coffee, tea, milk or spirits. Allow the patient to have abundance of fresh air.
HINTS TO WHARF OWNERS, AND TO OTHER PERSONS RESIDING NEAR THE WATER.Keep a coil of rope and pieces of boards in some convenient place, ready for immediate use.
TO PERSONS WHO CANNOT SWIM.If you get into water beyond your depth do not plunge, struggle, nor throw your hands and arms out of the water. " Tread water'' in the erect position, by moving the feet up and down, at the same time slowly paddling with the hands, keeping them under water. If any person approaches to rescue you preserve your presence of mind and do not grasp him ; do what he tells you. If any small object of support be thrown to you, place it under your chest or armpits, and do not struggle to raise yourself out of the water ; your head will not go under if you follow these directions ; and you may keep your mouth and nose above water long enough for assistance to arrive. By considering these directions carefully now, you will be less apt to lose your presence of mind should occasion arise for acting on them. Parents should have their children taught to swim. Many deaths might be thereby averted.
N. B.-In Suffocation by Smoke or any Poisonous Gas, as also in cases of Hanging or Choking, proceed in the same way as in drowning seeing that no obstruction exists in the mouth and throat, but omitting the efforts to expel water, etc., from the lungs.
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